Italy, like the other new nations of the 1860s-Germany, Japan, Hungary, and Romania-was a latecomer to international competition and, like all the other new nations save Germany, faced daunting problems of internal development and modernization. After its most serious effort at imperial expansion had ended in humiliating defeat at Adowa in 1896, for a number of years the Italian government prudently avoided major new international involvement…
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This is due to the traditional point of view that regimes of Hitler and Mussolini represented a single force appeared to withstand communist ideology in the European countries. Mussolini and Hitler had several common features though even main adversary of European fascism - the Comintern - claimed that German fascism had more common with Soviet communism than with Italian fascism. Italian fascism had become the first experiment of a governing authority with "a non-communist party of new type" and in this sense it was a forerunner of the world fascism. (Christopher Hibbert, 24-35) So Italian regime wasn't clearly fascist one, though it was totalitarian. And I will prove this in my essay.
Mussolini had a very clear objective to create a non-communist though totalitarian regime, which he had characterized in a very strict wording: "Everything in the state, nothing out of the state". The plan was to convert governing authorities by national principle and for this purpose it was important to win over population. Thus corporate system was created, one of the main distinguishing features of Italian totalitarianism. The Law, known as "Labor Charter", banned all non-fascist trade unions, which were considered as a threat for total unification, and established corporations instead of them. The new organizations were not trade unions even to some extent. They became main "underwater belt" of Italian totalitarianism. First of all, corporations inscribed in all population of Italy that significantly lightened total control over the masses and helped to conserve political activity of population, involved in the right direction. Secondly, corporations began to play a role of buffer in the political life of Italy - point was that all candidates to the Italian parliament were proposed by corporations, besides Superior Corporate Fascist Council, that replaced government of Italy, approved or rejected each candidature. In such situation institutitution of government elections still existed but it had little sense. Thirdly, corporations were to solve the most important problem for totalitarian regime - control over economy. In Italy unlike in Russia economy wasn't nationalized. (Jeffrey T. Schnapp, 151-153) Corporations included not only workers but also entrepreneurs, who were to follow totalitarian discipline and didn't have economical freedom. There were 22 corporations in different branches of the Italian economy by 1932. That let Italian totalitarian government:
Interfere in economy, which nominally was free from state influence;
Mobilize population, e.g. "battles for harvest, when Italian population was exploited on agricultural works;
Solve economical problems with political methods.
Comparing Italia to Russia and Germany we can't say that it was typical totalitarian regime as it was in the above-mentioned countries: from 1926 to 1932 Special Court-Martials of Italy convicted only seven death sentences to political criminals. 12000 persons were considered to be not guilty after arrest; it was never possible in communist Russia and fascist Germany. One of the most widely spreaded ways of political brutality was public and violent feeding of political opponents with castor oil, subsequently all opponents gained freedom and such repressions were harmful only for credibility of an
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All these three political institutions gave huge promises initially, but failed miserably in the end. All these three political institutions were formulated to make the life better for the people. However, instead of giving better life prospects, these institutions gave sufferings and humiliations to the people.
From this research, it is clear that the system of ethics emphasized by both the leaders is rationally approached rather than being dealt with morality. They have inherited cruelty and violence as a means to establish their fascism in their countries. These inhumane ideologies and rigid laws served to be the roots for Hitler’s genocides and Mussolini’s ruthless conquests.
Although it should not be understood by the reader that this author is attempting in any way to gloss over the horrors, racism, violence, brutality, and aggression that fascism necessarily leads to, the following analysis will seek to differentiate and define some of the key differentials that existed within European fascism.
In the 1920s there was a rise in the belief that democracy allowed for the incompetent many to have power over the corrupt few, placing the classes in diametric opposition and challenging the system of democracy. For a time, Fascism became popular as a way to counter this belief, supported by those who wanted a way to step away from democracy (Payne 4).
The ideology was on the basis that total subordination to the states and the unwavering loyalty to its leader would adjust the conflicting interest in a state. Ethnicity and national identity are the main drives of fascism since it seeks to regenerate social, cultural and economic life of a state.
Some scholars believe that Nazi Germany and Mussolini’s Italy are the only true fascist models, while others believe that Nazi Germany should be entirely excluded from the definition of fascism (Umland, 2005, p. 35). There are a number of reasons why fascism is so hard to define, according to Paxton (1998).
But there is no doubt that invasion of Sicily was the trigger point for Mussolini's dismissal.
At that time Hitler was facing a crucial strategic problem of opposing the Allies' evident reentry in Europe - territories conquered by Germany were so immense (from France's west coast to Greece's east cost), that it was practically impossible for him to gauge the place the Allies were going to strike next.
Both systems sprung from the influences of Socialism, focusing more on a state regulated society than a liberal one. Another common aspect is that both Nazism and Fascism grew from the frustrations that were caused by the First World War. The Treaty of Versailles
According to the report fascism in Europe at first developed as an intellectual movement which came into existence as a result of disillusionment of individuals over democratically elected governments which did not deliver on their promises of prosperity. It was highly organized and helped countries which had undergone humiliation.
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