There rights and status were very much under attack in the 1890s. In spite of the fact that the passage of the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments seemed to provide fundamental social and political freedom to every citizen in the country, Black Americans remained marginalized and disenfranchised by the white politicians. Wolff reveals that South Carolina became the first state to disenfranchise African Americans by denying them the right to vote and take part in politics (par. 3). In fact, all the gained made during the 1877 Reconstruction had disappeared by 1890s. By this time, racial segregation was the order of the day. In fact, no one thought that brining the two races together politically, economically, or socially would be possible. At this time, racial violence was rife throughout the country. In the 1890s, racial segregation as established by the Jim Crow laws appeared in almost every part of the country. The racial segregation resulted in the lynching on many African Americans by the white. History shows that, at national level, the Plessy v. Ferguson case revealed the commitment to maintain the status quo of race segregation. Wolff observed that, during this time, a group of civil right activist disgusted by the increasing restrictions of Black Americans in public places deliberately placed Plessy on a train in order to trigger an even that result in a legal battle to attack restrictions that bar African Americans from using trains as a mode of transport (par. 5).