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What drives a country's choice of strategy: capabilities or history - Essay Example

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In the widely fluctuating environment of world political economy, a country’s strategic choices emerge as key ingredients of competitive advantage. They facilitate a nation to only to penetrate new market but also help it to counter the power and hegemonic ambitions of other countries…
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What drives a countrys choice of strategy: capabilities or history
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What drives a country's choice of strategy: capabilities or history

Download file to see previous pages... The various imperatives that drive a country’s strategic choices are strongly influenced by internal and external forces that determine its decision-making and shape its future evolution. In the era of rapid globalization, a country’s core interests and how it can safeguard them become the most pertinent issue. The paper would discuss how a country’s capabilities are major drivers for strategic choices that determine its development processes and its survival within the wider context of political hegemony of states and balance of power. Factors influencing a country’s strategic choices History is witness to a nation’s evolving process and helps it to make decisions based on the lessons learnt (Gong, 2001). But at the same time, the changing external environment and factors that impact decision-making become hugely important for developing effective strategies for a country. The market compulsions and interdependency of resources have evolved into powerful factors that tend to influence government policies and political ideologies. The strategic choices adopted by a nation are therefore developed to meet the internal and external challenges that can give it a bargaining position to counter political, military and economic dominance of other nations. (Gray, 2007). The example of China and Russia demonstrate the changing political equations that are mainly dictated by external forces vis-a-vis market compulsions and reconstruction of political ideologies that can effectively meet new challenges of time. Kenneth Waltz (1979) has proposed that balance of power is critical factor that influences the strategic choices of a nation. According to him, in the international political dynamics, the anarchical system ensures that states are constantly in a state of flux as they tend to ensure their survival through new mechanisms of imitating successful states while simultaneously, other nations also respond with actions that can continue to give them an advantage. But once a relative balance of power is achieved, the self-interests of the states continue to guide its choices in the guise of other compulsions like market forces and inter-dependency of resources which can add to its economic power and also give it a unique political leverage in the global arena. Thus, regional alliances are made to promote collective bargaining with powers of the developed nations and reduce their influence or interference in the internal matters of the small and developing states. Waltz’s theory is important as it helps to explain how and why countries promote regional alliances and come up with unique strategies to compete and face threats from dominant powers. Gong (2010) asserts that strategic choices of countries tend to use historical events as landmark lessons to improve and improvise their strategies and meet internal and external challenges. The forgotten issues of history like holocaust of Japan and Germany are being re-visited to commemorate the victims and punish the guilty with heavy settlements. Indeed, human rights violations have emerged as important issues that redefine country’s strategies in global arena. Moreover, war strategies and defence of states are intrinsically linked to wider welfare of people and to ensure that catastrophes like German holocausts do not occur again. In the contemporary times, the digitization of media and communication has greatly influenced the strategic choices of nations by highlighting historical events which are exploited by countries to emphasize the mistakes or advantages of nations. In either case, the major aim of media is to promote social justice ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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