Nobody downloaded yet

(How has the oil wealth affected the prospects of democratization in the Arab Gulf) and ( Evaluate the role of civil society in - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Oil, Civil Society, and Democracy in the Middle East Most analysts have wondered whether the recent Arab Spring across the Middle East has helped in the spread of democracy. This region has a lot of wealth in oil, which is often seen as a curse since it allows authoritarian governments to last longer since dictators can buy patronage from nationally controlled oil wealth and become stronger (Ehteshami 34)…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.8% of users find it useful
(How has the oil wealth affected the prospects of democratization in the Arab Gulf) and ( Evaluate the role of civil society in
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"(How has the oil wealth affected the prospects of democratization in the Arab Gulf) and ( Evaluate the role of civil society in"

Download file to see previous pages Political science and economics studies have found that there is limitation of advances in democracy where countries in the Middle East have vast oil reserves. Oil wealth has a long-term effect on Middle Eastern democracy efforts. While extraction activities normally take place over an extended period, major oil discoveries take place during these countries’ peak production years (Ehteshami 37). Oil discoveries made in democratic countries such as Norway have no effect on their democratic trajectories. However, where oil is discovered in non-democratic countries, it is less likely that these countries will transition to democracy. Oil discovery has little effect on democratic countries politically. While Iran has been under theocratic rule for over 20 years, oil was discovered when they were a democracy, which can be seen to date as the country holds regular elections compared to its other Middle Eastern oil producers. The country only became less democratic after the Western-led coup of 1953 before transitioning back to elective democracy. This is in contrast to Qatar that discovered oil as a monarchy and has not made any strides towards democracy (Ehteshami 37). Prior to the early 50s, Egypt had one of the most vibrant democracies in the region with limited supplies of oil peaking in the mid 60s after which oil production declined from the 90s onwards. A similar history is shared by Tunisia, which was also a democratic country when they discovered oil. The relatively peaceful transitions in these countries are not a coincidence (Ehteshami 38). This is in stark contrast to Syria, whose major oil discoveries were made during authoritarian military rule. The transition from Bashar Al-Assad’s government to another has seen a bloody civil war erupt, as is the case with Iraq where oil discoveries were made during authoritarian rule. Oil rich non-democratic countries spend more on their military in order to stay in power, which enhances their political power and prevents the democratization of their countries. Lucrative reserves of oil also provide dictators with the incentive to want to stay in power longer since they fear they will loose everything if another leader comes in (Ehteshami 38). While civil society has played a critical role in the democratization of countries in Latin America and Eastern Europe, this has not been reflected in the Middle East. In this region, NGOs have been tamed and weakened since they can be co-opted using oil money (Ehteshami 98). Meanwhile, the EU and the US have continued to emphasize how important it is to develop civil society. Funding by the west for Arab NGOs has seen a significant increase since the September 11 attacks. The amount of money channeled to Middle Eastern countries by the US has tripled in the 12 years since. However, empowerment of these NGOs remains flawed and aimless because the countries’ leaders also have money that can co-opt them. Most of the NGOs in Arab countries are government organized with staffing and funding provided by the government. Their main idea in funding the NGOs has to do with managing and controlling change, rather than inspiring or instigating change (Ehteshami 98). Even where it is relatively easy to establish organizations that fight for democracy, these are still under strict ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“(How has the oil wealth affected the prospects of democratization in Essay”, n.d.)
(How has the oil wealth affected the prospects of democratization in Essay. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/history/1488518-how-has-the-oil-wealth-affected-the-prospects-of
((How Has the Oil Wealth Affected the Prospects of Democratization in Essay)
(How Has the Oil Wealth Affected the Prospects of Democratization in Essay. https://studentshare.org/history/1488518-how-has-the-oil-wealth-affected-the-prospects-of.
“(How Has the Oil Wealth Affected the Prospects of Democratization in Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/history/1488518-how-has-the-oil-wealth-affected-the-prospects-of.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
The BP gulf oil spill
...on the conditions another country may impose or be naturally going through, as well as economic benefits and reduced fuel costs. Those that oppose it naturally do so on the basis of the environmental factors and other risks involved, feeling that the cost benefits are not a viable excuse11. Others see a mid-way approach, where they feel it should be allowed in certain areas, but banned in others. So where does the answer lie, and what will the government do now that the ExxonMobil oil spill has refreshed the urgency of the debate? Though it is too soon to tell the impact it will be have, and the causes behind it, or whether there were failures on behalf of the company or the government, there is no doubt...
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment
US Gulf Oil
... US GULF OIL. The two articles bring out a sharp contrast between those who are for the oil drilling process and those against it. Kent Gaber in his article argues that there is the need for oil therefore; offshore drilling of the oil is the solution to the escalating oil prices. The politicians are also in support of the expansion of the drilling area to increase production of oil in order to curb the energy crisis in the country whereas Bob Keefe is more concerned of the effects to humanity and the aquatic life that would come about as a result of conducting this exercise. Gaber is for the opinion that majority of the Americans are in favor of the oil drilling process for the hope of the reduction of oil prices but kefee argues... of...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Mexican Gulf Oil Spill
...from the general populace. The case study of Gulf of Mexico oil spill will aid the understanding of the audience as to how the company dealt with the situation. The focus will be on the way company handled its communication in the media. Also, the role of culture and politics and its impact on the way the company dealt with the crisis will be discussed. The reaction of the public and how British Petroleum handled it will also be significant part of this case study. Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill The Gulf of Mexico oil spill started on 20th April 2010 with an explosion of the deep water horizon...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper
Civil society
...democratization process and enhance preservation of the society’s records, then this will help to solve this civil society problems availing as per Locke observation. Drawing primarily on Rousseau and Madison on how existence of political factions threaten and undermine civil society we find that, a lot has to be done to eliminate this aspect. Rousseau proposed a specific subject of argument in his scholarly works suggesting that, man is born free and an aspect of slavery should not be a threatening statue that civil society has to be accounted to....
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Gulf Oil Spill Paper
...?  Gulf Oil Spill Paper                Gulf Oil Spill Paper Question There were different forms of air and water pollutants which occurred because of the oil spill. A large constituent of the fresh oil that was spilled on the surface of Gulf of Mexico dispersed into the environment and was broke down by the sun. The air pollutants were made up of hydrocarbon fumes, for example, naphthalene, toluene, and benzene, and smoke. On the other hand, the water pollutants were made up of the oil which leaked out of the rig and the extinct creatures which trashed the Gulf after the oil spill. Both the air and water pollutants are primary pollutants (Norse & Amos, 2010). This is because the hydrocarbon fumes, smoke, and the oil are released... ...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Gulf Oil Spill
...serious immediate responses. People were experiencing respiratory issues, skin rashes, serious headaches, and confusion or disorientation. They, also, were quickly starting to get sick from eating the fish procured from the Gulf (Tiffany, 2013). This is how the spill represented a domino effect that then affected the local economies. There is an immense fishing industry in the Gulf of Mexico and surrounding areas. The contamination of the fish, literally, crippled the industry. Between the Deepwater Horizon explosions leaving workers without employment, now the fishing industry is, also, feeling the sting (Institute of Food Technologists, 2011). There is an acceptable...
7 Pages(1750 words)Case Study
Arab Oil
...The Arab oil-exporting countries decided on October 16, 1973 that they would cut oil production and place an oil embargo on the United s and theNetherlands. The OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) committee composed of the oil ministers of the Gulf member countries consisting of the United Arab Emirates, Iran, Qatar, Kuwait, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia had indicated they would unilaterally increase the posted price of Arabian Light, the marker crude, from US$3.011 per barrel to US$5.119. This move represented a whopping oil price increase of 70 percent. This price decision is now known as the...
4 Pages(1000 words)Case Study
How have oil prices affected our economy
...to face rising economic and social costs and other finance problems(“Oil and Gasoline,” 2008). This abnormal worldwide condition reduces the value – the purchasing power – of money and it buys less than it previously did. Hovering at $130 a barrel in June of 2008, oil price has fast become a central problem affecting global politics. Nations with oil supplies recognize the scarcity and importance of oil and deal with any government and the proceeds may be lost either to corruption or may deprive other countries of a much-needed development. It is a huge investment (oil), that some governments use this as...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Civil Society
...the market, the state and the households perform their roles in an independent fashion. The civil society is the connecting link between these segments and plays its role to harmonize the interactions that exist between various segments. The reaction of civil society to any undue happening in this interaction is manifested in the form of protest. Kant’s opinion is that there is no universal law that can govern the functioning of all civil societies. Therefore, the development of a law to govern the functioning of a civil society may only regulate the...
14 Pages(3500 words)Research Paper
Democratization efforts in the Gulf
... East are relevant to the needs of the people only to some extent. Bibliography Julie Gauthier.  Prospects for Democratization in the Oil Monarchies of the Persian Gulf.  Louisiana State University. 2007. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Arab human development report: challenges to human security in the Arab countries. 2002. New York: UNDP: Chapter 4. Richard W. Krouse. Polyarchy & Participation: The Changing Democratic. Theory of Robert Dahl. Williams College. Polity, Vol. 14, No. 3. 198... DEMOCRATIZATION IN THE MIDDLE EAST The Middle East has been for decades associated with an itarian style of governance to theextent that it has become difficult to initiate reforms. The...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic (How has the oil wealth affected the prospects of democratization in the Arab Gulf) and ( Evaluate the role of civil society in for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us