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Liberalism - Essay Example

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Liberalism refers to a political philosophy or global perspective based on notions of equality and liberty. Liberals champion an assortment of views based on their awareness of these principles. Generally, liberals defend notions such as civic rights, private property, free and fair elections, free trade, freedom of religion and freedom of the press…
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The theory of liberalism centers on a number of assumptions. The first assumption is that both state and non-state actors play a vital role in international relations. Liberalism values sub-state actors such as multi-national corporations and individuals. These actors can influence global politics (Shiraev and Zubok 389). The second major assumption under liberalism is that international relations encompass both cooperation and conflict. Liberals argue that since state are linked by finance and trade; they have incentives to cooperate with one another. This rationale allows the reduction of trade barriers such as tariffs. The democratic stability theory is also part of the second assumption and centers on the presumption that democratic states do not go to war with one another and that democratic countries do not instigate conflict. Liberals argue that democracies have shared values and norms thus identify with one another. Additionally, democracies are not subjected to military control. The third assumption of the theory of liberalism is that states are not typically unitary or rational actors thus leaders play bi-level games by simultaneously negotiating with foreign leaders and making choices that maintain their constituencies’ happiness.economics can all be the most vital goal of a state. . The article speaks to the issues of international relations on environmental issues, specifically pollution and deforestation....
The primary issue is that of the environment and business as palm companies operating in Indonesia illegally burn forests so as to pave way for palm plantations. This is a recurring problem in the country. The issue of air pollution and deforestation presented in the article affects the South Asian region. The theory of liberalism holds that sub-state actors are primary instigators of international relations issues. Multinational companies that own palm plantations in Indonesia are some of the greatest masterminds of deforestation and the illegal slash-and-burn practices as they clear land for their plantations. The issue is a major problem for the actors since environmental issues such as deforestation and air pollution can affect an entire regions. The multinational corporations involved in polluting the air and deforesting lands are also bound to be impacted by the ensuing poor air quality. Like the corporations, other institutions and individuals in the region are also affected. For instance, airlines lose business as they planes are grounded while people suffer from breathing difficulties or lung diseases. The problem is experienced the same by all parties because, according to liberalism, environmental issues can dominate the international agenda thereby impacting the entire nation. All actors in the South Asian region are impacted by the consequences of palm plantations’ slash-and-burn practices. This means that the environmental issue is a collective problem, which according to liberals, is at the center of international cooperation (Shiraev and Zubok 367). The issue at hand is a demonstration of how financial power plays a significant role in shaping international politics. Indonesian officials argue that companies headquartered in ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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