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Latin American History: Turner - Essay Example

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Name: Tutor: Course: Date: University: Latin America History Introduction The nineteenth century in Latin America marked an enormously important period. The wars on independence severed the political links with Spain as well as ushering the periods of economic stagnation and political instability…
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Download file to see previous pages This caused debate on modernization and promotion of progress in countries with the indigenous population like Peru. This paper analyzes the novel, ‘Birds without a Nest’ by Clorinda Matto classic ways of analyzing complexities involved in Latin America. The ‘Birds without a Nest’ novel forms one of the most important novels in Latin America due to its ground-breaking nature of various aspects. Clorinda’s work reflected the observations of the everyday life for various sectors in the society.1 Political Abuses In Latin America, the most marginalized and poorest communities included the indigenous communities who became hardly hit by the effects of globalization. The inequalities worsened in 2003 with the overthrowing of Gonzalo government by Quechua and Aymara natives in their movement towards socialism. The presidential candidate, Evo Morales, campaigned for the end of inequalities that progressed along ethnic lines. This saw his election in 2006, mostly by indigenous communities on the national platform. Similarly, globalization in the novel witnessed unprecedented economic growth and perpetuated inequalities in Latin America. This led to exploitation of people from the Andean highlands as it was during the colonial periods. Rich merchants exploited indigenous people by offering them advance payment for wool at prices that exploited the indigenous people, failure to which the payback happened at usurious interest rates. This system depended on the threat of violence and power. The beneficiaries of the system defended it strongly to the point of killing those that tried to defend the indigenous people. The indigenous natives from Andean highlands remained powerless. Most people became jailed with heavy fines imposed on them in return for their release. The revenue from exports of wool from people of Andean fetched huge amounts of money for British buyers and landowners. The indigenous peasants accumulated insignificant capital. The revenue generated did not enhance national development. The powerful landowners gave out loans hoping that the indigenous people would continue working in their plantations upon failure to pay back the loans. Likewise, in the colonial period saw the exploitation of natives in Latin America, repartimiento de mercancias where indige2nous suffered from forced sale of goods. The Corregidores who were the colonial magistrates used their administrative powers in compelling Indians under their power to buy goods from Europe at high fixed prices. The practice perpetuated inequalities which lasted for centuries. Social Hierarchy The novel sheds light on the mita system used by Spanish conquerors in finding free labor in 1530s, referred as encomienda. Spaniards received the right of extracting tribute and labor from the indigenous. This drew people away from their villages where men worked in construction and mining, and women served as maids, wet nurses and cooks in encomenderos homesteads. This exploitation continued for centuries. Indeed, such exploitation happened when Peru conscripted Indians to work in road networks. In the novel, the indigenous had to perform the unpaid obligatory services to Killac authorities. The indigenous women became Matayas, and men became Pongos. In addition, the exploitation among the indigenous labor, the exchange in the novel sheds lig ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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