Nobody downloaded yet

What were the main features of Russian economic backwardness - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
The backwardness model details a theory of economic growth advanced by Alexander Gerschenkron. The model hypothesizes that the more backward an economy is at the beginning of economic development the more probable is that certain conditions are likely to manifest. …
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.9% of users find it useful
What were the main features of Russian economic backwardness
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"What were the main features of Russian economic backwardness"

Download file to see previous pages The more backward the economy is the higher level of production and enterprise is; the higher the dependence on borrowed instead of indigenous technologies is; the higher the prominence of the production of producer groups compared to consumer goods is; the higher the emphasis on capital-intensive rather than labor-intensive production is; the bigger the dependence on productivity growth is (Gerschenkron 1962, p.6). In approaching the economics of Tsarist, Russia one encounters two remarkable and entirely opposite features of the Russian economy at that period, namely: a) the industrial “boom” of the 1880s and (2) the economic backwardness of 1914. Economic historians attest to the fact that in the period ranging between 1891 and 1900 Russian economy did grow (Spulber 2003, p.33). This period details the period of industrial boom within Russia and featured the period at which the industrial output of Russia rated among the highest. During this period, majority of the industrial areas were growing speedily whereby the “Tsarist empire, Europe’s biggest economy has by 1900 displaced France from 4th position within the world iron production and had raked 5th position within steel output (Goldsmith 1961, p.441). The railway system rose in mileage by 87% in the period 1892-1903 while oil extraction tripled in the period 1887-1898. These were evidently significant achievements of Russian economic planning, especially the Russian finance minister of the time. At the period, from 1892-1903, the finance minister attempted to do his best to improve Russia in both fiscal and industrial capacity to be at par with other European powers and the entire government awarded support in this endeavor. Russian government was eager to foster industrialization since (1) the market featured deep control from the state (2) the expansion of heavy industry enabled a speedy catch-up, speedily covering the gap that manifested within the country’s economy, and (3) the industrialization enhanced the overall military capability of Russia. Nevertheless, the massive project demanded enormous investments. The investments demanded entailed: (a) the capital resource investments, (b) workforce investment, and, (c) knowledge capital investments. With regard to capital investments, Russia was unable to avail capital investments in adequate quantities and, as a result, foreign investments were broadly encouraged. Ultimately, some of the industries fell into the hands of the foreigners (Goldsmith 1961, p.442). By the start of the Crimean war, Russia featured as the world’s largest debtor nation. The war can be regarded as one of the core obstructions that hindered the progress of Russia economically. This detailed one of the core reasons for Russia’s further incapability to keep the pace of the “boom” given that significant energy and finances directed towards supporting the war against Britain and France (O'Brien 1998, p.227). With regard, to workforce investments, the rapid pace of industrial development owed much of its accomplishment to the common working people, frequently regular peasant who went to the cities to seek new industrial jobs (Gregory 1973, p.486). The flow of the labor force from the villages to the cities yielded a highly unbalanced economy. The Russian economy at this period cannot be likened to a plan of a system. As Alexander Gerschenkron outlines it, this economy of industrialization was fundamentally a “powerful spur” out of backwardness (Gerschenkron 1962, p.5). The Main Features of Russian Economic Backwardness The economic successes that Russia experienced then (after 1914)were practically unsustainable owing to a number of reasons, namely: (1) originally, the full-scale Russian industrialization ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“What were the main features of Russian economic backwardness Essay”, n.d.)
What were the main features of Russian economic backwardness Essay. Retrieved from
(What Were the Main Features of Russian Economic Backwardness Essay)
What Were the Main Features of Russian Economic Backwardness Essay.
“What Were the Main Features of Russian Economic Backwardness Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
Main Features of Enterprise and Entrepreneurial Management
...that will gain customer loyalty to build market share for profitability. According to O’Dell and Pajunen (2000), customers are not loyal to any particular product or service and will be loyal only until the next best product or service comes along. Therefore, competitive analysis helps to set-up proper pricing, advertising and customer service systems. Financials: cash flow, profit and loss, and balance sheet projections An entrepreneur must understand the financial position of the business in order to create new products and services, receive financing and determine its economic health. The cash flow provides a snapshot of the current capital available to the business, how the company receives its cash resources and...
11 Pages(2750 words)Essay
What Are the Main Features of Fascism as an Ideology
...behind many fascist economic controls was to spread the fascist ideology, making it necessary to consolidate trade unions in order to strengthen state power. Many of the anti-capitalist policies offered by the fascists were accepted and internalized by lower- and working-class individuals. This demand for increased public control in the economy led logically to central planning by fascist governments similar to those projects undertaken by communists. Thirdly, in terms of foreign policy, fascists take the struggle of the nation to be paramount to the struggles of the class, as depicted in Marxist and communist literature. Much of fascist literature evaluates the state as a driver of social change, which...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Main Features in Walt Whitmans Song of Myself
...Features of Psychology, Symbolism, Characterization and Theme in Walt Whitman’s Song of Myself: One of the remarkable features of Walt Whitman’s Song of Myself is its adaptation of the epic poem genre. But, while classics of this genre have at their center a heroic figure, Whitman introduces a new vision of the heroic. Instead of glorifying acts of great courage and feats of tenacity and will power, the heroic in Whitman is to be found in the qualities of the ‘common man’. This term was not in currency during Whitman’s era but fits the description perfectly in retrospect. In this sense, we can claim that the Song of Myself is an avant-garde venture to democratize heroism. In the place of Greek and...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
Russian Economic Growth since 1998 74% of the booming 1989 GDP by 20012; a success that convinced Western countries that Russia had regained its strength and capabilities from the Communist era. Kharas, Pinto and Ulatov note that the devaluation of the Russian ruble led to domestic inflation for which Russian people were not prepared3; federal borrowing meant that the government had to continue to sacrifice social services and put its people at further risk until internal revenues were restored. De Blij and Muller cite the sheer size of The Russian Federation as the reason for most social imbalances within the state, explaining that forces of devolution and fundamental geographic...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay
What are the main features of Charismatic Leadership
...What are the main features of Charismatic Leadership Introduction Charisma, as Max Weber puts it, “a certain quality of an individual personality which is considered extraordinary and treated as capable of having supernatural, superhuman, or exceptional powers or qualities”(as cited in Morrison 2006,p.364). These features of personality are not accessible to the ordinary person because these are considered to have divine origin that made charismatic leader eligible for such power and authority (Morrison 2006, p.364).The paper studies main features of a charismatic leadership. According to Weber charismatic leaders can be prophets, persons with reputations, devoted religious believers or war heroes. They manifest such powers... to...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
Outline and discuss the main features of fascist political thought
...Niccolo Machiavelli and Prince Niccolo Machiavelli’s book Prince is a popular book about politics. It has observations dealing with human beings’ behavior as they still live today in relation to how the were, five hundred years ago. He also talks about two kinds of states that hold authority over men. These are republics and principalities. He goes ahead and argues that Principalities can either be brand new or inherited from previous generation. This means that they are attached to the previous regime or they get it from freedom. He continues and adds that they can be acquired by either ability or fortune. Example of those who became Prince by abilities includes; Moses from the bible, Cyrus the founder of Persian Empire, Romulus... ways one...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay
Social Psychology: Outline and discuss the main features of ELM
...and evaluated the effectiveness of web personalization strategies when grounded on the principles of the ELM. According to Tam and Ho (2005), web personalization influences consumers in two distinct ways: first, it affects central route processing when offers products and services that match customer preferences; second, web personalization may involve sorting out inappropriate products and services. The latter involves peripheral route processing and invokes heuristic cues in users (Tam & Ho, 2005). Actually, Tam and Ho (2005) were among the few to mention the heuristic principles of information processing. More often than not, this aspect of persuasion remains beyond the scope of the ELM discussion. Heuristic...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
Summarize the main features of the SII, KCS and SDS
...A summary of the main features of major career assessment instruments: SII, KCS, and SDS Summary of the main features of major career assessment instruments: SII, KCS, and SDS In any quest for making an effective career decisions, one must be equipped with the right tools to help know more about itself. The Strong Interest Inventory (SII) is a self-report questionnaire that measures career and leisure interests. This tool encourages individuals to find a career where they are both good at and are interested in. In 1927, E.K. Strong Jr. published a book on interest inventory which became the basis of this instrument (CPP, 2009). There are four main categories of scale that are used by most career counselors and educators... summary of the...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
What are the main features of British conservatism
...up of numerous categories that were proposed by the above-mentioned thinkers. Natural aristocracy is one of the most important concepts. Burke stated that natural aristocracy includes nobles, scholars, scientists, lawyers and wealthy businesspersons. He further stated that wealth that is based on policy and reason deserves to be given a privileged position in society to avoid a recurrence of the revolution. Traditionalism is one of the main features of British conservatism. It contrasts with the ideology of enlightenment as it is opposed to reason as it means subordination of a given action to the natural course of the way things are done (Coxall and Robins 2003:43). It is basically the...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
Features of Chinese Economic Development
...Features of Chinese Economic Development Features of Chinese Economic Development Economic development is the measure of the progress of an economy. China is an Asian nation that has a unique economy. Reforms in China began in 1978 and since then the economic development has undergone various changes and implementations. Following these reforms between 1978 and 2005 the gross domestic product (GDP) was on average 9.6% per year. As for the period 1995-2002 its growth was at an estimated 25% compared to United States 20% (Carsten, 2008). This paper will expound on the characteristics of China’s economic...
3 Pages(750 words)Article
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic What were the main features of Russian economic backwardness for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us