Thirty years war will never be forgotten by those people who witnessed and suffered during that time. Thirty years war is known as the conflicts between religion and rebellion that connects dynastic rivalry (Lee 8). This Thirty Years War is considered as one of the most destructive and unforgettable time in European History. According to Helfferich, the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, now the modern Germany is the main battleground of this war (ix). In addition, he stated that the issues involved on this war are the ones that are still being experienced today. Examples of which are the issue dealing with political federation, the toleration regarding religious factors, and it also includes the equal military intervention. This is actually the first war that involves and affects many European powers. It mainly involves “the French Bourbons, the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs, the Dutch, the Scandinavian powers, Poland-Lithuania, and England” (Helfferich x). Lee notes that the war started because of the Bohemian revolt (1). It started when there is a religious conflict between Catholics and Protestants. The province of Bohemia which has Protestantism revolted against Austrian rule (Lee 1). Moreover, it is understood as a religious conflict at first, but somehow turned into a political one. The Emperor and Archduke of Austria started the revolt by wanting to change Protestantism in Bohemia and trying to elect Ferdinand of Styria, as King of Bohemia, who is a leading Catholic (Lee 1).
The thirty years war, which is known to be a religiously driven war, was changed to a political one, when France and Sweden decided to take side to the Protestant (Wilson 10). The war even continued to Germany when the Elector Frederick of Palatinate showed his German lands and introduced the Catholic League (Lee 2). Frederick still got sanctuary in the Dutch Republic and that there is no one who can stop him in conquering Palatinate in 1622. Catholic League won after five years. The conflict had been in favor of the Emperor. When the Catholic League succeeded, the war still continues. Lee also added “the empire experienced the most wretched decade in its entire history as it was subjected to repeated and destructive invasion” (8). When the thirty years of war began, it focuses merely on religious aspects but as it continues, it shifted to politically driven war. When the opposing parties decided to take each side for them to further expand their power, the thirty years of war became a political war. Further, the central Europe had been devastated as the war continues for 30 years (Cramer 24). The population in Europe drastically went down, and cities were destroyed. Cramer even affirmed that Europe was in full ruins (32). The war ended when Protestants and Catholics entered into the treaty of Westphalia. The treaty of Westphalia is considered to be the reason that ends the war (Lee 9). Polisensky stated that the Holy Roman Empire had been destroyed when the war ended (267). Technically, it is still there but the emperor is just a figurehead. This means that the ruler which is German prince has now the right to have the religion that they want on their area. Also, Austria grows and continues as one of the major political powers. On the other hand, France is considered as the continent that has the pre-eminent power for over a hundred years (Polisensky 344). According to some, thirty