US minority politics
Racism is the belief that each and every member of a specific race possesses characteristics or abilities that define that race. This leads to discrimination directed towards someone of a different race based on the belief that they are different…
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This term usually gets used negatively and gets associated with race based prejudice, discrimination, violence or oppression (Bonilla 63). US politics gets affected by the way citizens have continued to view themselves racially through the years. This in turn affects them socially, economically, and, culturally. Racial theories Racism began way back in the 19th century when many scientists began to believe that human populations got divided into separate races. At this time, the idea of racism had fully matured (Spielberger 59). They used this to justify the belief that some races were less than others and deserved to get differential treatment. This theory got termed as the scientific racism. Scientific racism is a technique or hypotheses used to classify individuals into different phenotypes into discrete races or ethnicities. There is also proof that in the 18th century race existed. It became invented to magnify the differences between people during the American slavery (Egelman 46). They used this to get Africans to function as slaves. Authority at this time got based on reason rather than superstition or religion. The scientific racism got further supported by a German professor who created a science called craniology. This tried to use shape and dimensions of human skulls to measure intelligent ratios. He came up with the conclusion that the shape of the human skull limited his capacity for intelligence. He then placed the European at the top of all the civilized beings (Balogh 105). Another theory of racism is institutional racism. This is the treating certain groups preferentially or withholding benefits to certain groups based on racial characteristics gets institutionalized. It takes into account the belief that humans get divided into separate biological entities called races (Karim and Solomos 78). This causes people to think that inherited physical traits, traits of personality, morality, intellect, and other cultural behavioral features are linked. Institutional racism gets displayed in nation states that become grounded in the racist ideology. This played a crucial role in colonialist times. It also came into picture in the fascist and Nazi regimes in Europe. The Marxist theory is the most common theory of racism. Racism directed towards African Americans, and other people of color has been the key and continuing feature of the U.S society. Its forms have changed from the obvious maltreatment to indirect inequalities. It is this sector of people that experience the highest rates of life expectancies, infant mortality rates, unemployment, poverty rates and stereotypes in the mass media. This outlines the Marxist theory that states that racism serves the interests of capitalist or employer class. This gets done by dividing black and white workers reducing their potential unity thus bargaining power (Egelman 120). The fact that the colored people in society suffer most injustices of life clearly shows that the Marxist class system still carries through. Much of the social analysis that focuses on the inequalities and injustices in the U.S society has become influenced by the ideas of Karl Marx. There are jobs which get reserved for the whites who control production, capital and continually try to increase their profits. There are also psychological theories, which argue that, racism is a form of prejudice on the extreme. Psychologists also argue that it is an expression of the psychological process
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