Lay investiture - Research Paper Example

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THE LAY INVESTITURE: POPE VS. KING Insert name Name of course Name of the supervisor Date THE LAY INVESTITURE: POPE VS KING Lay investiture controversy was the most profound conflict between state in medieval Europe and the church. Several popes opposed the powers of European kings over control of investitures of church officials such as abbots and bishops…
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Download file to see previous pages Kings had taken some duties and trappings entitled to priests while some priests and bishops governed as feudal lords. The church lacked the governing power because the pope did not have coercive power to implement ecclesiastical policies. As such, it was necessary to employ the secular arm that was willing to implement the will of papacy. The monarchies saw the new action of papacy as usurping their power and as a result, conflicts emerged (De-La-Noy 1993, 72). During the time when Norman rule was established in England, there was a great need for change in the relationship between secular and church authorities. Gregorian reforms, which favored a central authority of Rome when dealing with local churches in Europe, were not fully accepted by Western Europe’s kings and monarchies. There was an increase in the effectiveness and scale of papal influence in local churches. At the same time, the powerful government established by Norman monarchy in England often opposed the influence and intervention of the pope in the affairs of local churches. As such, papal intervention and interference by the monarchy in the affairs of local churches led to investiture conflicts. ...
After the death of William in 1100, Anselm returned to England after being invited by a newly installed King Henry 1. Anselm supported Henry’s rise to the throne against a protracted conflict with his brother, Robert. However, due to respect for papal decree, Anselm declined to support Henry’s demand to honor him and obey his commands. In addition, Anselm rejected to consecrate bishops that the king wanted. Henry did not want to quarrel with him while at the same time, he did not want to compromise the monarchy’s rights to homage and investiture (De-La-Noy 1993, 74). Despite mutual respect between Henry and Anselm, there was a direct conflict between them. Henry, who was not as violent as his predecessor Rufus, was resolute. He summoned Anselm and insisted that he pay homage by consecrating the bishop and priests that he had proposed, or he would leave the country. Anselm did not take any of the two options offered by Henry because he had deep conviction that he had to respect the pope, and it was his personal decision to either accept or decline the king’s demands. The conflict compelled the two to send emissaries to Rome in order to negotiate ways of solving their conflict. Pope Pascal II answered back by praising the king’s faithfulness on the matter but maintained his predecessor’s stand that forbade investiture and homage (Wilhelm 1990, 44). After a series of negotiations conducted by the king’s emissaries and the pope, there was some compromise in which Henry was allowed to invest in some bishop, but the 1102 letter by Pope Paschal II did not touch on homage but criticized investiture fervently. The Roman Council, which was attended by ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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