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Why did German revolution of 1918/19 fail - Essay Example

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The German Revolution of 1918/19 or the November revolution was a conflict in Germany seen as the First World War was ending. This war had a significant impact on the country as it ushered in the replacement of the country’s imperial rule to republican rule…
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Why did German revolution of 1918/19 fail
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Download file to see previous pages This war started in November of 1918 and ended when the Weimar Republic was set up in August of 1919. The causes of the revolution were very much linked to the social tension in Germany during the First World War which later escalated in the days following the war. This war however is considered a failure. This paper shall discuss why the German revolution of 1918-19 failed. This paper will first provide a background of the revolution. The subsequent impact of the war shall then be discussed including the reasons for its failure. This paper is being discussed in order to provide a critical analysis of the German revolution, specifically, the pertinent details which led to its failure. Body The German revolution of November 1918 was caused by the Germany’s defeat during World War I and the initial attacks were launched after the naval mutiny on November 19181. After a few short days, the insurgency escalated in the country and gained more supporters; limited resistance from the old rulers was observed. The insurgents soon gained majority support against the German ruling empire when the working class joined the troops2. Workers and Soldier’s Councils were being established in Germany at that time and these councils soon established political as well as military authority. The Social Democratic Parties became the main runners of the revolution, and together with the Councils became the main political actors of the revolution3. By the 9th of November 1918, the Imperial Chancellor or Prince Max of Baden declared the abdication of their Emperor and subsequently, the prince transferred the office of the Chancellor of the Reich to Friedrich Ebert who headed one of the Social Councils4. At about the same time, Philipp Scheidemann declared the establishment of the republic and within a few hours of the announcement, Karl Liebknecht declared the establishment of a Free Socialist Republic in Germany5. The Social Councils in Germany however were in conflict with each other because the Major Social Democratic Party (MPSD) wanted to establish a constituent national assembly to be secured as soon as possible; on the other hand, the USPD or the Independent Democratic Party of Germany wanted to immediately implement a socialist system based on Soviet ideals6. Due to the various issues which have arisen after the end of the war, the MPSD wanted to establish a cooperation of old power brokers within the Empire. There was however a weak commitment in the parliamentary system and the republic among the police, the judiciary, the military, as well as the civil service7. This limited support made things difficult for the new republic. With all the above hitches however, on November 1918, a Council of People’s Representatives was established and ratified by the provisional general assembly of the Social Councils8. Various policies were secured by this council, including a general election which was to be held on January 1919. The alliance of social councils however collapsed in December of 1918 due to differences in military operations9. Conflicts on the direction of the revolution soon resulted to the Spartacist Revolt as troops of the MPSD launched bloody skirmishes with the other parties and councils. Government forces were supported by the right wing parties. One of these right wing parties – the Freikorp soon had some of the leaders of the KPD assassinated10. Elections for the National Assembly directed the goals of the revolution towards parliamentary rule even as the months that followed saw various confrontations with the leftists. The MPSD became the biggest and strongest party after the elections and soon after, the National Assembly formulated itself in Weimar, voting Friedrich Ebert as the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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