Counter Terrorism in Comparative Perspective: Critical Review of the importance of conceptions/definitions of terrorism to the analysis of counter-terrorism. Terrorism is the most discussed issue in early 21st century public discourse. Ever since the September 11, 2001 attacks on America, it has been a major pre-occupation of American diplomatic and military efforts…
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As a measure to retaliate to and prevent terror attacks, America and its allies have initiated several counter-terror operations in perceived geo-political hotspots. But differentiating between what comprises an act of terror and what can be classified as counter-terror is never straightforward - the official use of these labels is often purely a matter of rhetoric and self-serving bias. As renowned public intellectual Noam Chomsky succinctly points out, “if it is done by our side, the act is counter-terror; if it is done by the enemy, it is terror”. (Chomsky, as quoted in Bowden, 2003, p.51) A glance at the presentation of conflicts in mainstream media sources bears out this point. Depending on who the consumers of news information are, notations of terror and counter-terror are conveniently swapped. Hence, conceptions and definitions of these two opposing terms will have to begin by dispelling rhetorical exaggerations, intrinsic biases and other barriers to truth. In this context, it is not surprising that the word ‘terrorism’ has become so subjective as to be without any concrete meaning. Nevertheless, the word has a frightening resonance, because people “tend to believe that it does have meaning and to use and abuse the word by applying it to whatever they hate as a way of avoiding rational thought and discussion and, frequently, excusing their own illegal and immoral behaviour”. (Whitbeck, 2002, p.52) The vagueness of the term is evident from the range of verbal formulations (signifying diverse acts) to which it is applied – “Mass murder," "assassination," "arson" and "sabotage" are available (to all of which the phrase "politically motivated" can be added if appropriate). Such crimes, moreover, are already on the statute books, rendering specific criminal legislation for "terrorism" unnecessary. Such precise formulations, however, do not carry the overwhelming, demonizing and thought-deadening impact of the word "terrorism," which is, of course, precisely the charm of the word for its more cynical and unprincipled users and abusers. If someone commits "politically motivated mass murder," people might be curious as to the cause or grievances which inspired such a crime, but no cause or grievance can justify (or even explain) "terrorism," which, all right-thinking people agree, is the ultimate evil.” (Whitbeck, 2002, p.52) The best indication of difficulties in defining terrorism is the fact that some of the most inspirational public figures of the twentieth century such as Nelson Mandela, Menachem Begin, Yasser Arafat and Gerry Adams were all regarded as terrorists at some point during their public life. This classification of them being terrorists co-existed or transformed into more respectable classifications such as statesmen and peacemakers – indeed, Mandela, Begin and Arafat, have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and Mandela is viewed today by many as the leading moral authority of his time in the world. (Tsoukala, 2004, p.417) Such examples typify the hazard of defining terrorism and terrorists. It also shows that these terms are easier to talk about than to define. As noted political commentator, Nissan Horowitz, points out in the major Israeli newspaper Ha'aretz, the meaning of the term terrorism is all in the eye of the beholder. To give a concrete example, he asks “
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Counterterrorism policies are directed at preventing, discouraging, pre-empting, and reacting to terrorism. Terrorism in this case infers organized and premeditated application of violence by non-state actors against non-combatants so as to engender an ideological goal.
The author states that California is also the economic hub of America and also houses the biggest number of important buildings, international corporations and film industry. After 9/11, US Patriotic Act was amended and renamed ‘USA Patriot and Terrorism Prevention Reauthorization Act’. There were introduced surveillance and detention of people.
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Are you going to send agents to attend Mosques? Are you going to develop informants among those already living in that population? Are you bounded by any ethical considerations other than the need to prevent needless deaths through terrorism?
Based on the
A special, top secret court, termed as the FISA was crafted to hear appeals for such justifications. Safeguards were placed in a position to make certain that investigators following criminal issues did not
In reference with today’s terrorism, there is a great difference as many of these nations battle to attain political power. However, there is a great difference in the tactics used by militants during those early days. This is following the growth and advancement in
Yes, it is true. Do you think that I am not an educated individual? I am a post graduate in mechanical engineering, specially trained to handle explosives. I provide ample importance to training because I am aware of the fact that regular training leads to success.
A brief overview into the timeline of Northern Ireland reveals a past riddled with violence and terror acts over the last century. The situation in Northern Ireland is particularly confounding since Northern Ireland has gone through a similar political dispensation like Wales and Scotland yet these have not experienced similar terrorism in modern times (Rubin and Rubin 60-61).
19 1How and why cyber-attacks take place 23 2.2 Methods followed in information warfare/cyber terrorism 34 2.3Who are affected in information warfare /cyber terrorism? 37 2.4Ideologies and philosophies underlying acts of terrorism 43 2.5The relationship between cyber terrorism and ideological extremism 52 2.6Safeguards from Attacks 54 Military approach to cyber warfare/cyber terrorism safeguard strategy 56 Governmental and industrial approach to cyber terror defence 60 Cyber warfare technical and economic defence measures 62 Technical: 62 Economic 63 Disaster Recovery Planning in case of cyber terror attacks 64 2.7United Kingdom: Government Strategy to Counter Cyber Terrorism 65 2.8Saudi
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