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In this book however he has detailed all the fourteen overthrows by the American Government from Hawaii (1893), to Puerto Rico (1898), Philippines (1902), to Nicaragua (1910), Honduras (1911), Iran (1953), to Guatemala (1954), Vietnam (1963), Chile (1973), Grenada (1983), to Panama (1989), to Afghanistan (2001) to Iraq (2003). As Kinzer puts it in his book, ‘No nation in modern history has done this so often, in so many places so far from its own shores.’
Through in this book Stephen Kinzer gives us an insight on the big picture on how the American Government overthrew not just one or two but fourteen foreign governments, in more than 110 years for its personal, economic and political aim. The arguments have varied from civilizing others, to protecting others, to Christianize others and guard and liberating others, often leaving the countries in a state worse off. Whereas, in reality, America has been trying to have control over the natural resources of other countries and stretch their regime of power over the world at the same time crushing enemy ideologies.
Kinzer opines that the results have however been damaging to the target nation and for America as well, in terms of human lives, security and the economic state of the country. This has, instead of strengthening the country, weakened its stability and has lit the fire of anti-Americanism across many nations. Kinzer explains why a range of invasions and operations were planned and pursued, which ultimately led to catastrophic turning point in the history of America.
Kinzer’s American history of invasion tells us a tale of its bold lies, immorality and illegality. The first overthrow mentioned here is that of the coup at the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893, it was for sugar, in Cuba, it was for mafia and land occupation, Nicaragua, Guatemala and Honduras happened for United Fruits and ITT, Panama for canal and the last one being the invasion of Iraq in to ouster the regime of Saddam Hussein, mainly to have control over the oil reserves of the country. It has been the part of the US foreign policy for over a decade to elevate them, to spread their power, even if it takes them to curb other nations, while showing an innocent face to the world over. The motives of American intervention abroad have ranged from banal and trite to calculated and strategic, but the reason has always been greed. Kinzer’s Overthrow has been divided into three sections of America’s century old politics to change of hands of power, with the power always residing in the hands of America. The century saw three eras of America’s regime change, beginning with the imperial era, which witnessed the downfall of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Nicaragua and Honduras to American military, the era of cold war, which swayed action against Iran, Guatemala, Vietnam, and Chile, the era of invasion saw the American troopers barging the lands of Grenada, Panama, Afghanistan and Iraq. It tells us about the audacity of military commanders, spies, politicians and businessmen, who took it upon themselves to overthrow monarchs and presidents of nations, where America deemed a war necessary to attain political power. America’s intention was to install in their places a puppet of their own, who at times, rather than working alongside the American Government have proved to be causing problems for their foreign policy. Talking about Hawaii, Hawaii was a big time producer of sugar but they never refined it. When the American missionaries working in Hawaii saw this prospect, they manipulated Hawaii to export sugar to the US. All was going smooth but then a new regulation came up, which prevented them to do so, thus creating panic. It was here that
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They are hardly the first people to believe themselves favored by Providence, but they are the only ones in modern history who are convinced that by bringing their political and economic system to others, they are doing God’s work.” -Excerpt from Stephen Kinzer, Overthrow: America’s Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq (2006) America is a nation of diverse culture and of multicultural people.
He organizes the history of these regime changes into three broad eras: the Imperial Era, the era of Covert Actions, and Invasions, and each era has its own specific character of regime change, though many characteristics stretch across the three eras.
The author of the essay touches upon the issue of the counterculture and its impact. Reportedly, American relative economic prosperity is called by the economists and historians alike as the “Affluent Society” in which crass consumerism was the paramount paradigm, abetted by the advertising where people soon developed their wants instead of what they normally needed.
The exact date when the war ended is a matter of controversy amongst political scientists, historians, journalists amongst other professionals, but its end led to another which lasted about 45 years, this was known as the cold war. Historians point out that it is the rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union that set off this war, the rivalry was majorly the ideological difference between these two countries.
Some events had a major impact on the course of world history and it takes a great insight and knowledge to know how these events helped shape the world today. America in the two centuries since its birth and independence from mother country Great Britain had been a powerful global force to reckon with, as it embarked on a robust expansionist strategy in acquiring new territories to expand its markets and hegemony.
American democracy today is characterized by the politics of compromise which can be seen in the various burning issues of the day, such as health care, immigration policy, war against terror, climate change and carbon emission caps, foreign diplomacy, national defense, and so many other domestic and international issues.
This book by Kinzer evaluates the most direct means of Americans intervention, the overthrow of other governments. Overthrow: America’s century of regime change from Hawaii to Iraq. This book talks about the aggressive nature of the U.S
The study begins with the statement that regime change has remained an integral part of the USA foreign policy for over a century. It is not an initiative of George W. Bush. Ever since the 1893 intervention and toppling of the Hawaiian monarchy, the United States has continued to overthrow governments perceived to bar or hinder the achievement of its economic and political goals.
It has overthrown governments that have displeased it for various ideological, political, and economic reasons.
The overthrows in the first part were because of imperial reason and are commonly referred to as
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