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Adopting the framework of Henry Nau, the basic insights offered to understand why wars and peace can happen are the realist, liberalist, and identity perspectives (Humphreys, 180). The class lectures of our course heavily used the book of Henry Nau and, thus, this discussion heavily used the lecture materials. The realist perspective holds that states must protect themselves and that the best protection will be found wherein states balance each other, meaning that no state is in a position to bully the other states because all states have the capability to subvert a bully either alone or with allies (Lecture 3, Slide 2). However, holding the other states in check so that no one would be in a position to bully or conquer another, require that states must arm themselves (Lecture 3, Slide 3). In addition, states will be unable to tap allies if they themselves are not armed (Lecture 3, Slide 3). For realists, transitional peace is possible if countries disarm. Yet, if a country disarms and others do not, the country that disarmed will not be in a position to defend herself. The country will be vulnerable to attacks and will be vulnerable to being conquered by the country that did not disarm. If on the other hand, all countries arm themselves to the teeth, a situation is created wherein a war scenario or an armed standoff can emerge (Lecture 3, Slide 6). This means there is a potential for war with an armed standoff (Lecture 3, Slide 6). There is a dilemma: if a country does not arm, she risks being bullied or conquered. If a country arms, she will risk a war or an armed standoff (Lecture 3, Slide 6). For a realist, countries will usually consider subjugation unacceptable. On the other hand, a country can consider peace to be too fragile and vulnerable to become a situation in which one country could re-arm to conquer the other. Thus, for realists, the “realistic” or appropriate situation to target is a situation of stand-off or parity of power (Lecture 3, Slide 6). On the same dilemma and situation confronted by realists, liberalists or liberalism holds that peace remains possible if institutions are created to make negotiations work better (Lecture 4, Slide 2). Liberalism argues that peace can be enforced if countries or states unite to punish states that fail to disarm (Lecture 4, Slide 2). Liberalists hold that another route towards peace is available if states who are disarming implement the disarmament by stages wherein participants to the disarmament observe each other (Lecture 4, Slide 3). Each country can implement the disarmament proportionate to the goodwill or initiative of each other (Lecture 4, Slide 3). A country can also reduce her arms in a manner calculated to inspire reciprocation from other countries to reduce their arms. In doing so, all countries in a disarmament program can reduce arms until the disarmament becomes full and complete (Lecture 4, Slide 4). A country can initiate goodwill reducing arms in the expectation that other countries will reciprocate the goodwill by implementing a proportionate disarmament. In the liberalist perspective or liberalism, institutions play an important role in the disarmament process because they can serve as third parties that can help countries involved in the disarmament (Lecture 4, Slide 4). The forerunner of the United Nations, for example, the League of Nations provided a mechanism whereby countries involved in international disputes are able to submit their dispute to the league for arbitration (Lecture 4, Slide 4). If the league finds or has come to believe or has deemed that a country is guilty of aggression, the league can enforce peace by imposing economic blockade or sanctions against the assumed aggressor (Lecture 4, Slide
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