The Social, Political, and Economic Situation of Kuwait post Gulf War 1990-1991 Situated in the north east of the Arabian Peninsula, Kuwait first came in worldwide interest in 1990 when it was attacked and taken over by Iraq…
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Even before the Gulf War, Kuwait was facing some political conflicts with Iraq regarding territory occupation, oil, and debts. However, the political system and foreign relations of Kuwait altered after Iraq’s invasion, along with a constant fear of another attack from Iraq. The Gulf War also had a significant impact on Kuwait’s social conditions, especially on the role of women and Shiites, attitudes regarding Palestinians, and social welfare of the people. Although Kuwait gained victory from Iraq within days of the invasion, the social, political, and economic situation of Kuwait post war was a far cry from the situation that existed before the war (Ashkanani, Hadi Ridha., Shears, Jane. 21; Czinkota, Michael R., Ronkainen, Ilkka A. 618; Crystal, Jill. 176; Isiorho, Soloman A., Gritzner, Charles F. 85, 94, 95; Fasihuddin; Omar, Abdullah; Shenon, Philip; Finlan, Alastair 83, 84; Cordesman, Anthony H 14, 15; Al-Mughni, Haya; Federal Research Division 83; Cushman Jr, John H.). Before the Gulf War, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the economy of Kuwait was mainly based on trade. It gained a lot of maritime advantage through trade with Asia, Africa, and Europe because of its strategically located natural port. The dependence of Kuwait’s economy then shifted to pearl diving in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The reason for this was also the gulf, which provided natural pearl banks for harvesting by merchants and sailors. Closely linked to pearl diving was the emergence of the shipbuilding industry, as well as fishing. Trade and maritime occupations remained important monetary sources for Kuwait’s merchant class and foreign orientation till 1990. However, this economy was not enough to provide for most of Kuwait’s population, especially those outside the merchant families and ruling families. Pearl diving slowly began to decline, and came to a sudden halt in the 1920’s due to the Great Depression and Japan’s manufacture of an alternative for natural pearls (Federal Research Division 84, 85). Nevertheless, Kuwait’s economy got a chance to thrive when petroleum was discovered in its region in 1938. Its drilling was disrupted as a result of the World War, but then resumed in 1945. Kuwait further got an opportunity to prosper when oil was explored, produced, and exported in the 1950’s. A lot of revenue was gained due to the high demand of oil by foreign countries, and this revenue was used to improve Kuwait’s economy. Industries, social and physical infrastructure was built, along with much spending on the social and economic welfare of Kuwait’s people. This period between 1960 and 1980 was known as the ‘construction boom’, and became a magnet for large number of workers, especially from Iran, South Asia, and Arab countries. The strategic location of Kuwait’s gulf, and its enhanced communication and port facilities, contributed to an expansion of re-exports, trade, and many other commercial activities (Federal Research Division 85; Fasihuddin). However, the invasion and take over by Iraq led to various adverse economic consequences for Kuwait and disrupted its continuous economic development. The first thing Kuwait’s economy had to face was the hefty costs incurred as a result of the war. When Kuwait’s rulers had gone in exile, they had drawn down from Kuwait’
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Hassan states that among the most influential factors that led to the Iraqi invasion was that Saddam Hussein was confident enough in his popularity in the Middle East to attack this tiny state without any repercussions to his fame. Hussein’s popularity among his fellow Arabs came about because he publicly voiced his opposition to the United States’ stationing of its forces in the Arab territories.
........................................... 4 Causes of the Gulf War...................................................................................... 5 Failure of Economic Sanctions .....................................................................
The gulf war in 1990-1991 was a reaction to Saddam’s threat to the region, which eventually caused significant changes in Middle East affecting economic, political and social conditions. Following the coalition war, the problem of Iraq against the west was not because the regime was undemocratic because no Iraqi regime has ever been democratic but because the country’s foreign policy came into conflict with western interests.
Kuwait's border with Iraq has long been a source of tension between the two countries.
Kuwait is mostly comprised of flat sandy desert. Although there are no rivers or mountains, the sandy soil gradually slopes to sea level where coastal marshes, mud flats and salt depressions around the northern part of Kuwait Bay are habitats for many species of birds.
Then came the actual war in 2003. The question of the political expediency of the War of 2003 was drowned in a collective American fear of threats to security. George Bush's speeches were also engineered to keep the morale of the people high, in the tradition of past war leaders of the world (Churchill, for instance)
This paper will seek to provide an account of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq in the Early 1990s and the reasons behind the aggression by Iraq. It will try to give an answer to the questions: “What were the reasons for Iraq’s attack on Kuwait in the Persian Gulf War of 1990s? What measures did the international community take to tame the Iraq aggression?”
The Security Council organ of the UN was mandated to accomplish this with the decision from the countries with the veto powers. The international security remains one of the major concerns of the UN to ensure that there is complete restoration of peace.
This state of affairs continued until the year 1911, when the first school for boys was founded. This school was named the Al-Mubarkiya, and it ushered in a novel education system in Kuwait. Subsequently, AlSaada, the
cing stability in the Mid East region, guaranteeing the security for Saudi Arabia and Israel who were important allies to the country, ensuring that Iraq could not achieve hegemony in the Middle East, and ensuring that oil supply was not challenged for developed nations in the
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