Social and environmental policies comparison: United States And China - Research Paper Example

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Political institutions have a direct bearing on various policy matters in any state. Social and environmental policies are directly related to political philosophies and priorities. The implementation of policies is also a direct function of political will…
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Social and environmental policies comparison: United States And China
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"Social and environmental policies comparison: United States And China"

Download file to see previous pages There are myriad differences in the various social and environmental policies in use in the United States and China. The political systems in either country are also differentiated in many respects. This text will attempt to analyse major social and environmental policies implemented in both countries and will analyse them in respect of the political institutions and political systems at work. These policies include the social control of both governments, the governments’ response to social concerns and the commitment of each nation to dealing with environmental concerns. Before policies are directly referred to, the political systems of both countries will be delineated briefly to aid the comparison. Chinese politics are conducted through a single party socialist republic framework while the political structure of the United States of America is a federal constitutional republic. The constitution of China delineates the leadership of the Communist Party but there is no such provision in the constitution of the United States. Instead in the American system the layout of the federal government is delineated through the constitution. The president is the head of the state and the head of the government in both the United States and China. The American system of governance has distributed powers within the president, the Congress and the judiciary in order to maintain a balance of power. On the other hand, the power structure for governance in China is exercised through the Communist Party, through Central People’s Government as well as their local and regional counterparts. However, the federal and state governments in the United States are distinct and independent of each other in some respects yet the federal government shares it sovereignty with the state governments. In China, county level People’s Congress members are elected by voting. These members in turn oversee local government and elect members of the corresponding provincial or municipal People’s Congress. The members of the Provincial People’s Congress further elect members of the National People’s Congress which holds an annual session at Beijing. (China Internet Information Centre) In contrast everyone is allowed to vote freely in the United States to choose most officials in government. The Communist Party plays a pivotal role in selecting fitting candidates to be elected to local congresses and to higher levels in government in China. The parties in United States choose their candidates for election too but independent candidates may stand for election too unlike China where the candidate must be somehow affiliated to the Communist Party. The political system of the United States and China are distinct because of a few issues. The upper house of the legislature, the Congress has increased powers in the United States while the Supreme Court has a wide scope of powers than most other nations. In comparison China has the legislature and the judiciary subservient to the Communist Party in large part. Moreover, the legislature and the executive are well separated in the United States which is not the case in China. Another interesting feature is that only two large political parties exist and dominate the political scene in the United States while only one large and dominant party exists in the Chinese political scenario. (Bowman and Kearney) Political Parties The political scene in the United States is dominated by two traditional political parties that are the Republicans and the Democrats while the Communist Party of China has some 80 million members and it dominates both politics and governance. (Communist Party of ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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