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The Increasing Prevalence of MRSA Skin Infections in the General Population - Case Study Example

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This paper 'The Increasing Prevalence of MRSA Skin Infections in the General Population" focuses on the fact that the upward trends in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the community are highlighted from the literature. …
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Download file to see previous pages This review addresses issues concerning the increasing prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin infections in the general population and current treatment strategies. MRSA diseases have constituted a formidable clinical challenge for several years. Although the pathogen has been typically associated with health care environments and patients who have been exposed to some form of hospitalization-related treatment (i.e. healthcare-associated MRSA), an emerging development has been the increasing occurrence of community-associated or community-acquired MRSA types, resulting in a new challenge to the medical community.
The classical mechanism of resistance of MRSA to beta-lactam antibiotics is an alteration of target penicillin-binding proteins which makes them have a low affinity for the penicillins. This is mediated by the mecA gene, carried on the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC). However, several MRSA strains now possess resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics via alternative mechanisms.
Community-acquired MRSA differs from healthcare-associated MRSA in a few respects (Rybak & LaPlante, 2005) Isolates of community MRSA are generally susceptible to non-beta-lactam antibiotics, while the hospital-acquired MRSA isolates typically show resistance to multiple antibiotics. Also, community isolates are genotypically distinct from health care-derived types, with a novel methicillin resistance gene element previously unreported among the health care-derived isolates. Moreover, community isolates typically occur in patients who do not have any of those risk factors associated with MRSA. Community-associated MRSA isolates have a greater likelihood of encoding virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, and the bicomponent cytotoxin Panton-Valentine leucocidin, which was previously reported to be produced by less than 5% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates.
It is believed that the genetic patterns observed in community-associated MRSA isolates suggest that they must have resulted from methicillin-sensitive strains that successfully incorporated the SCCmec IV element which is uniquely characteristic of community-acquired MRSA.   ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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