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Integrated Clinical Physiology - Essay Example

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Integrated Clinical Physiology Table of Contents Introduction 3 Physiology of Normal Pregnancy 4 3-Stages of Prenatal Development 4 Placental Development and Function 5 Uterine Changes 5 Structural and Functional Changes to Maternal Systems 5 Musculoskeletal System 5 Gastrointestinal System 6 Maternal Physiological Adaptations of the Cardiovascular System 7 Haemodynamic Changes 7 Physical Changes 7 Changes to Maternal Coagulation and Haemostasis 9 Maternal Physiological Adaptations of the Respiratory System 9 Changes in Respiratory Function 9 Lung Volume/Function Related Changes 10 Acid/Base Changes 10 Maternal Physiological Adaptations of the Renal System 11 Structural Changes 11 Changes in …
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Download file to see previous pages These functions fundamentally include the reproduction cycle of the human beings, like the endocrine glands, which consists of parathyroid, pineal, pituitary and gonads affected by the reproduction cycle throughout. During the process of reproduction, some of the cells and glandular tissues grow ability to produce, change and absorb the substances of hormone. Undoubtedly, hormones play a vital role in the reproduction process wherein the endocrinal glands ensure that the hormones have reached its targeted tissue in the body. During the correlation of the hormones and the molecules, several other signaling modes arise in the reproducing body such as intracrine, cryptocrine, paracrine, autocrine and neurocrine. All these modes have their significant role in the reproduction process and form the biological basis for reproduction (Chedrese, 2009). Elaborating on the above mentioned changes occurring in human body during reproduction, this paper intends to provide a detailed study on the various changes occurring in the body during pregnancy. The discussion also reflects upon the changes observed in the fetus due to the physiological change in the maternal body. Physiology of Normal Pregnancy 3-Stages of Prenatal Development The prenatal development is generally classified into three stages as described below: The Germinal Stage: This stage refers to the initial period of 15 days after the conception. At this stage, the egg splits into cells and move towards the uterus for implantation in the female body. If the eggs are successful in implantation, the pregnancy is considered to be positive (Martini & et. al., 2011). The Embryonic Stage: This stage starts after the conception and remains till eight weeks of pregnancy. An unborn baby, scientifically termed as ‘embryo’ is developed in the womb. It is during this phase that the various internal organs along with systems of the body develop in the embryo. It is a critical stage for the development of brain of the fetus and thus holds considerable significance to reproduce a healthy baby. Hence, the conceived mother should remain alert regarding her health and must avoid hazards strictly at this stage (Richardson & et. al., 1997). The Fetal Stage: After the embryonic stage, the fetal stage remains till the birth of the baby. It is the longest stage of the pregnancy. The baby gains weight and starts developing at a faster rate at this stage. It is in this stage that all the five senses of the baby begin functioning. At this stage, the baby also continues to grow its immune to the food taken by the mother (Bickley, & Szilagyi, 2012). Placental Development and Function The placental development is a stage quite similar to the embryonic stage in pregnancy. The placenta plays a significant role in the process. It is a particular organ, which is responsible for the mother and the fetus exchanges. It is the first organ developed in the fetus and carries on the process of the exchange of food and nutrients consumed by the mother to the fetus. It carries several functions in the pregnancy process as ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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