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Token Economies - Essay Example

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Token Economies Applications of Principles of Learning and Behaviour [Pick the date] Name Intervention is researched to be a distinct and deliberate mechanism of introducing the concept of change (regarding any object or situation) into peoples' opinions, behaviours and feelings…
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Token Economies
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Download file to see previous pages Intervention is regarded as a respectful and neutral way of allowing people to see through their own behaviours, assess themselves on different ground supported by factual information and its affect on their lives and personality ( It offers help to self destructive persons by enabling them to listen and think. Self monitoring, a well recognized type of intervention is now frequently used within general to special class of students as an effective intervention that is found to increase their academic performance and thereby enhancing self control (Harris et al., 2005). Self monitoring is that type of behaviour intervention that is used in context to recording behaviours of one’s own self (Kerr & Nelson, 2006). Self-monitoring approaches have two common types. The first one is attending to one’s own behaviours, measuring and recording them known as SMA - self-monitoring of attention, whereas the second one is attending to one’s own academic based performance, measure and recording them known as SMP - self-monitoring of performance (Maag et al. 1993). On an average research studies have clearly shown the increased significance and effectiveness of SMP rather than SMA when assessed on various tasks (Reid and Harris, 1993). While on the other hand when the hyperactivity disorders are studied, SMA is found to show more improvements in learning and memorizing spelling than SMP (Harris et al. 2005). Another study recognized the academic performance, memorizing speed, accuracy and productivity of general or special up to nine grade students is found to be increased by applying self monitoring intervention, behaviourally and academically (Todd, Horner and Sugai, 1999). The students who have difficulties in learning, keeping pace with the academic curricula and face academic and behavioural difficulties in understanding are taught with self monitoring interventions (Carr & Punzo, 1993). With strategies of self monitoring interventions, the students are enabled to perform and improve their academic and behavioural abilities and recognize their talents and capacities to perform act and recognize their own behaviours (Hoff and DuPaul, 1998). These are considered to be the most useful, effective, organized, simple and easy to implement and monitor strategies for students facing learning and behavioural difficulties. Self monitoring is therefore offered from the preschool age and continuing up to the adulthood and helps in enhancing the innate cognitive functioning and independent functioning through self help. According to yet another study, positive feedback and improvements have been drawn and recorded after the implementation of self monitoring strategies behavioural interventions by elementary school teachers among disabled students. These studies are conducted in school setting therefore they are regarded as interventions. The method involved in the first study was selecting five students as the target objects having some types of disabilities and according to the ACT REACT paradigm, they were exposed to solve maths questions by their teachers which they found problematic, that was their main area of problem identified as lack of engagement. This study was conducted in an elementary school setting and these five children were seated among 21 other students in a fourth-fifth grade multi-age group classrooms attended by a teacher and an instructor who taught the students different math principles for different time lengths mostly 5-15 min/new skill. The ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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