The writer of the essay "Alternative solutions for Animal testing on medication" consider the animal testing to be to be a big problem in the United States. Researchers test pharmaceuticals in animals to determine toxicity, dosing, and efficacy before they start human clinical trials…
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In Computer Simulation as a Tool for Studying Metabolism and Drug Design authors studied the Trypanosoma brucei (parasitic protist species that causes African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness) using computer simulation. There was a high-quality data available for them for most of the enzymes of glycolysis in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei, including all of those likely to be influential in controlling glycolytic flux in this organism (Cornish-Bowden, Eisenthal 165). Due to the availability of the body of kinetic information, it was possible to construct and validate a computer model of trypanosomal glycolysis. “T. bruce is the agent responsible for African sleeping sickness, a disease of major medical and economic importance, it becomes clear that it offers an ideal opportunity for exploring the potential value of computer simulation as a means of arriving at a better understanding of metabolism and hence a more rational approach to drug design” (Cornish-Bowden, Eisenthal 165). The results of these studies showed that “in ideal conditions, computer simulation is capable of providing information that is qualitatively different from what may appear obvious from inspection, is of potential practical value for the design of new pharmaceuticals, and is reliable” (Cornish-Bowden, Eisenthal). Results of these studies led researchers to the conclusion that computer simulation is to become an essential tool for achieving success in drug development and other biotechnological applications.
Computer simulation is as well widely used in drug design, modeling techniques for
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The medical practitioners have credited this procedure due its cheapness, human-friendliness and its relative efficiency. However, criticism has emerged to raise concerns of animal cruelty and species extinction, and ineffectiveness of the process in providing a guarantee to human safety.
This paper aims at emphasizing on avoidance of animal testing.
Conclusion: Animal testing is not important in medical research as facts can prove it. Government and institutions should come up with measures that aim at
The author examines clinical animal testing as the most commonly used whereby drugs are administered into the animals, and observation are made. Such testing can include skin test which provides information on the circulation of the responsible white cells in the process of protecting wounds in animals.
The author states that there are strong ethical arguments against animal experimentation. A common example would be an illness given to laboratory mice in order to measure the effectiveness of a new drug. Animal experimentation has showed that it causes pain, suffering and lasting harm to the animals.
From the documentary, I learnt that before drugs are tested on humans, they have to be tested on animals. This whole situation got me thinking whether or not animals should really be subjected to tests that may lead to their
According to the paper despite the fact that animals should not be subjected to painful and potentially lethal experiments for the sake helping develop cures and medical procedures that would save human life, their relevance in this aspect cannot be overemphasized. Nevertheless, while life is treated as precious, both for animals and humans, it is evident that none should be denied the right to live a life free of pain and suffering.
Animal testing has contributed immensely in coming up with life-saving cures and treatments. According to California Biomedical Research Association, almost all medical breakthroughs over the past one century used animals (Watson, 2009). Animal testing has also contributed to understanding how to treat malaria, Leukemia, and other major diseases.
Animal testing includes such simple activities as observing mice run in a maze to other extensive experiments that include injecting the animals or even dissecting them. While the results of animal testing are always profitable to
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