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The effect of aerobic exercise on level of lipids in human - Dissertation Example

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The effects of aerobic exercises on the levels of lipids in the body were evaluated in this study. Lipids are present in all the tissues in the body and form an integral part of all cells…
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Download file to see previous pages The aim of this study was to determine the levels of different lipids within the blood of patients in fasting and after aerobic exercises. The exercises were carried out three times in a week a period of twenty five minutes. The study involved four men and one woman. Blood samples were collected in heparinised test tubes before exercise having starved the patients overnight and also collected after the period of aerobic exercises. The plasma was collected by centrifuging the blood at 1300 rpm for 10 minutes and kept at -20oC. The levels of plasma high density lipoproteins, triglycerides and cholesterol were measured directly by spectrophotometry using ABX PENTRA 400- HORIBA machine and expressed as mmol/L. The results were analysed using a paired t- test. The results indicated that the levels of triglycerides, low density lipoproteins and total cholesterol were higher before the aerobic exercise but significantly lower (P< 0.001). However, the levels of HDL significantly increased (P< 0.001) after exercise compared to the fasting levels. Thus this study has shown that the levels of lipoproteins in the blood are affected by aerobic exercises. Though the sample size was small with only five patients involved these results has was consistent with the known data which has established the beneficial effects of aerobic exercises in reducing the levels of cholesterol from rising to harmful levels which is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT 2 LIST OF FIGURES 5 LIST OF TABLES 6 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 7 CHAPTER ONE 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Background Information 1 1.2 Statement of the problem 4 1.3 Aim of the study 5 1.3.1 Objectives 5 1.4 Hypothesis 5 1.5 Justification 5 CHAPTER TWO 6 LITERATURE REVIEW 6 2.1 Energy requirement during aerobic exercises 6 2.2 Digestion and absorption of lipids in the fed state 7 2.2.1 Digestion of lipids 7 2.2.2 Absorption of lipids 8 2.3 Synthesis of cholesterol 10 13 14 2.4 Lipid metabolism during fasting and exercise 14 2.4.1 Lipid metabolism during fasting 14 2.4.2 Lipid metabolism during exercise 16 2.4.3 Endurance training exercises 17 2.4.4 Effect of intensity of exercise in lipid metabolism 19 2.5 Regulation of lipid metabolism 19 2.5.1 Lipid regulation in the fed state 19 2.5.2 Lipid regulation during fasting and starvation 20 2.6 Lipid metabolism and disease states 21 2.6.1 Fatty acid metabolism in Type 1 diabetes 22 2.6.2 Fat metabolism in Metabolic Syndrome 23 2.6.3 Fatty acid metabolism in Type II diabetes 24 2.7. Obesity 25 2.7.1 Lipid regulation in obesity 27 2.8 Regulation of lipid metabolism by leptin, insulin and adiponectin 29 2.8.1 Leptin 29 2.8.3 Adiponectin 32 CHAPTER FOUR 35 RESULTS 35 4.1 Plasma lipid concentrations 35 4.2 LDL concentrations 37 CHAPTER FIVE 40 DISCUSSION 40 CHAPTER FIVE 45 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 45 5.1 Conclusion 45 5.2 Recommendations 45 REFERENCES 46 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Hydrolysis of cholesterol to cholic acid 7 Figure 2: Hydrolysis of triacylglycerol in into fatty acids and monoacylglycerol 8 Figure 3: Schematic representation of lipid metabolism in the fed state. 10 Figure 4: Cholesterol synthesis 12 Figure 5: ?- oxidation of fatty acids 14 Figure 6: Lipid metabolism during fasting and exercise. 17 Figure 7: Lipid regulation in fed state 20 Figure 8: Regulation of fatty acid metabolism in fasting and starving state. 21 Figure 9: Fat metabolism in type 1 diabetes 22 Figure 10: Fatty acid metabolism in metabolic syndrome 23 Figure 11: Fatty acid metabolism in type II diabetes. 25 Figure 12: Effects of hyperleptinemia on AMPK ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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