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Water and human development (drinking water, sanitation) - Essay Example

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Every year millions of lives are claimed, and the developments of human are held back on a huge scale by lack of adequate sanitations, lack of hygiene and existence of…
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Water and human development (drinking water, sanitation)
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Challenges Resulting from Poor Water and Sanitation Practises Water and Sanitation is an important Human Right, and itis a key determinant of Human health and development. Every year millions of lives are claimed, and the developments of human are held back on a huge scale by lack of adequate sanitations, lack of hygiene and existence of unsafe water. World Health Organization indicates that improvements in sanitation and drinking water cold reduce child mortality every year by 2.2 million. In developing countries, access to safe, sufficient and affordable water is still a significant challenge. Human Right to water is almost similar to the right to health. Most diseases causing deaths in developing countries are on sanitation.
Diarrheal diseases such as typhoid, cholera, amoeba, and shigellosis among others are caused by poor water sanitation. Statistics show that 5000 children die every day as aresult of diarrheal diseases. This translates to every child dying in seventeen seconds. These death rates are because of inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene practices in developing countries. Poor sanitation has a direct link with economic growth of the country; A recent study shows that developing countries with improved sanitation achieved an annual economic growth of 3.7%, while on the other developing countries with poor sanitation, achieved only 0.7% economic growth (Chew 33).
A sick society is unable to be effective in their work towards improving the economic status on their country. Most countries with water and sanitation problems spend most of their resources in treatment of diseases stemming from poor sanitation and poor hygiene practices. Accessible and affordable water is also essential in agricultural and livestock production. In the quest to reduce the disease burden stemming from poor sanitation, several institutions including states, non- governmental organizations and the private sector, have tried to come up with approaches to curb this.
Kamar Kal invented an approach known as Community Lead Total Sanitation in his endeavour to promote sanitation and hygiene. The approach is based changing people’s behaviour toward achieving an Open Defecation Free society. Instead of building latrines for communities, it’s aimed at igniting change in communities through triggering.The approach uses shameful and disgusting examples, therefore,enabling people to realize the importance of an Open Defecation Free Society (Drew 76).
Communities are also encouraged to use locally available materials to construct latrines. Since the invention of this method in Bangladesh, there has been asignificant reduction in faecal contamination of water and therefore considerable reduction in the prevalence of diarrheal disease. Degradation of Water Catchment areas is the main cause of insufficient water in most developing. Countries resulting to a significant decrease in volume of water flowing in rivers. This attribute is as a result of increasing population growth, hence encroachment into water catchment areas in thequest to look for land for settlement.
There has also been a significant effort towards ensuring access to safe, adequate, and affordable water. Increased advocacy for Human Rights to Water and good governance and reforms in the water sector has resulted to tremendous improvement (Chew 89) Water Resource Management Authorities have been tasked with the responsibility of managing water catchment areas and reducing pollution of water resources, which has lead to availability of adequate and safe water.
The millennium development goal 7c which states that the community of people with poor sanitation should reduce by half by the year 2015.For this to be completely realised joint efforts are needed from everyone through proper hygiene practises.
Work Cited
Chew, E et al. Improved Water and Sanitation In Developing Countries. Maryland: Gaithersburg, 2008. Print
Drew, D.M. Human Rights to Water and Sanitation. Alabama: Oxford Press, 2006. Print Read More
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