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Further, most of the activities that man has undertaken require water to the extent that water may form a part of the energy production through electricity. However, the wider concept remains on whether a majority of the world population has access to clean water rather than water for any other designated purpose. On the contrary, economic analysts have foreseen water becoming the next sought after commodity after oil due to scarcity especially in arid areas of the world. Essentially, an arid land region is one characterized by intense water shortages that tend to facilitate slow development and nurturing of plant cover or animal life. Tentatively, they are mostly desert areas that surround the equator and commonly present in Africa. Subsequently, the purpose of this report will delve on the assessment of practical techniques for providing clean water to arid regions like Zambia. 2. Current situation in Zambia By 2010, a shocking 61% of the Zambian population had privileged access to improved water supply sources while 48% of the same population had access to sanitary options. Further, the challenges in water supply and access tended to vary depending on whether the population was in an urban setting or whether in rural places (Mc Intyre, 2012: 90). For instance, a UN survey indicated that at least 87% of the urban settler had access to water while only 48% of those residing in rural settings had access to the same. Additionally, access to water in the Zambian urban population indicates that 41% had running water or house connection while a significant 49% accessed water through water kiosks or vendors. Over time, the number of those accessing water through water kiosks has been on a steady increase trend while that of those enjoying house connections has been plummeting. However, the Zambian council for water and sanitation insist that the country has achieved water provision as a millennium development focus, but sanitation has proved elusive (Mutale, 2004). As many would say, lack of clean drinking water presents a number of significant implications that are mostly social especially for women and girls, a situation that is no different in Zambia. In turn, this raises the poverty levels within Zambia. 3. Consequences of water shortages in Zambia Annual precipitation levels in Zambia The graph above show the effect of percentage of class attendance throughout the year due to water shortage Arguably, the declining rainfall in the Zambian republic forms the basic reason as to why the country has continued to experience water scarcity. Two organization echo this sentiment, which are the System Network for Famine Early Warning and the world bank where they insist that the trend is worrying. Moreover, Zambia is a nation that has no access to the sea hence rendering this state as a landlocked country in the South African region. These two factors have facilitated the nation to have food insecurity as their government may not assure the over thirteen million Zambians with adequate food. According to water aid organization present in Zambia, for every three people, two have no access to clean water nor sanitation facilities. In turn, this has influenced the mortality rates for children within this country to be at an alarming ten thousand children annually. Ideally, the children tend to suffer from diarrhea and other sanitation related diseases like cholera, bilharzia among many others (Waters, 2008). These diseases tend to be water borne and treatable but access to quality health care facilitates an increase in the mortality rates. Sequentially, children and infants become prime victims of these
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Annotated Bibliography 1. Aongola et al. Creating and protecting Zambia’s wealth: experience and next steps in environmental mainstreaming. Natural Resource Issues 14(2009): 10-85. Accessed from http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/17502IIED.pdf The authors provide a critical analysis of political, economic and environmental issues in Zambia.
Global Warming: Flooding and Lack of Pure Water.
Nowadays hardly a day passes without some news on global warming issues, especially those concerning water pollution, flooding and the shortage of clean drinking water. In this essay the main dangers of global warming and the ways of coping with them will be introduced and discussed for forming a clear understanding of the issue.
The author presents the outcome measure in which the researchers investigated the respondents’ filter use and acceptability. The following measure had both strengths and weaknesses. The households that contained functional filters were the only ones used in the study. This gave the study a chance to obtain valid results.
The second step is to consider outsourcing some functions or aspects of one's business. The business ethics aspect of this move is that one has to refer one's clients to other respectable businesses so as to ensure continued good will. One also has to look for other reliable businesses so one can outsource one's work properly.
3. This result is certainly a shock to me, as I had not previously taken into account factors like the amount of water used in food. I feel that I must decrease my water consumption footprint so that I can play my small but
That’s not to say that the water is safe and tasty everywhere in the U.S. but is this a reason to promote bottled water that causes so much harm to our environment?
Going green has been the new world slogan. This is essential due to the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations asserts that the maximum contamination level goals (MCLG) for lead should be zero. This level assures consumers that there is no safe level for lead exposure .In addition, The Safe Drinking