The traditional African peoples of the sub-Sahara have a very high sense of the Sacred. There is reverence for sacred places, persons and objects. Religion enfolds the whole of life, and there is no dichotomy between the secular and the religious, the sacred and the profane, the visible and the invisible…
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For the Africans, man is not just homo religiosus in the classical sense. He eats, drinks, sleeps, works and does practically every thing religiously.
The Catholic presence in Africa was re-shaped by the twin events of decolonization and Vatican Council 2 between 1962-65 (Hastings, 1989). In Vatican's aim to evangelize, priests and missionaries were encouraged to use the vernacular in worship called vernacular liturgy as well as the development of African hymnody and instrumentation "...The most important single effect in Africa in popular terms of the Council has been the change in singing, in hymns, in music, in the use of musical instruments," (Hastings, 1989). It was also noted that Vatican II also encouraged African Catholics to read Protestant vernacular translations of the Bible.
But the "westernization" of Catholicism, particularly reduction of approval on healing shrines, holy water, statues and candles, resisted by African Catholics. Likewise, by 1994, ninety percent (90%) of the hierarchy was African as symbolized by the African Synod. Catechists mostly married lay men also became instrumental in the spread of Catholicism in the 20th century.
In the African Synod led by the late pope John Paul II, emphasized marriage to be in-cultured for it had been a problem within the African Catholic community having irregular marriages. Since traditional African marriage was not recognized, African priests were encouraged to incorporate the sacramental blessings of the church to the traditional marriage ceremony.
Problems arose when traditional African marriages is not finalized until a woman proved her fertility through childbirth, which did not fit into Catholic practices. Intermarriages of religions, with Protestants, likewise, banned children from committing communion and this further widen the gap. One particular incident in Rwanda was the inciting of racial hatred and genocidal violence between Tutsis and Hutu between both Catholics and the church was not able to contain nor control the violence, although today, confession, repentance and reconciliation are being worked out (Lettinga, 2000).
By the time the Pope John Paul II died, there were already about 100 million Catholics in Africa and nearly 30 million are Congolese (Quist-Arcton, 2005). Interestingly, Lamin Sanneh reported that Senegal, a Muslim majority with about 90 percent of its population as Islam believers, include Catholic holidays as national holiday (Suarez, 2005) that include the Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin.
Cardinal Thiandoum, the Relator-General for the African Synod remarked (qtd, Isizoh (1996):
Many Christians, at "breaking points of life", have recourse to practices of the traditional religion, or to prayer houses, healing homes, "prophets", witchcraft or fortune-tellers. Some turn to African Independent Churches (sometimes considered a syncretistic Christian cum African Traditional Religion) where they feel that certain elements of their culture are more respected. Few of them return to African Traditional Religion. All these movements indicate that the spiritual yearning of these people for an authentic expression of the African spirituality
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“Comparing Traditional Catholicism to Catholicism in Africa Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1507298-comparing-traditional-catholicism-to-catholicism-in-africa.
This paper will argue that the assertion held by most scholars that these aspects are products of European domination, are not sufficient. It will provide the premise that African Catholicism developed as a product of traditional religion with reference to Christianity in Kongo.
The Catholic Church is believed to be one of the ancient beliefs among the early people, especially among the Romans. The belief is based on the doctrines of the bible but it also goes beyond to incorporate spirituality, theology, and liturgy. Catholicism is characterized the strict adherence of the Catholic Church to the traditions, the See of Rome, communion, sacraments and meditation.
Jesus would most likely argue that Protestantism is the most rugged form of Christianity, in the sense that it mainly relies on Congregationalist, Calvinist principles. This is meaning that-by "Congregationalist"-most Protestant churches are independent of councils and such.
The main conclusion of the work is that before and during the period of Reformation, Europe was facing serious economic problems, connected with the consequences of the Black Death (plague epidemic) and the reconstruction of the religious ideas in catholic countries has created major conditions for the better economic and social growth there.
and 1650 A.D. During this period in history, Martin Luther, noticed that there were many inconsistencies within the Catholic Church. Much of this had to do with the sale of indulgences as well as the notion that there was systematic corruption within the Catholic Church.
Catholicism looks upon these religious authorities as the mediation between God and a devout Christian. Perceptibly at the heart of Catholicism lies a rigid sense of institutionalism, a strong commitment to the religious
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