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Conditions in Somalia - Essay Example

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This essay entitled "Conditions in Somalia" describes the events happening in Somalia. Admittedly, Somalia is one of the developing African countries, which got their independence not so long ago and which occupies a strategic position in the Horn of Africa. …
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Conditions in Somalia
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Somalia is one of the developing African counties, which got their independence not so long ago. It occupies a strategic position in the Horn of Africa. In addition to ties with other African countries, it has close religious and historical links with the Arab and Islamic world and has a seat in both the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and the Arab League. Somalia has a population of approximately six million, including refugees. This country attracts attention of European and American countries first of all, because of it’s numerous inner conflicts.
The author of this essay would like to explain conditions in Somalia from the position of three social sciences – history, sociology and politology.
First of all, it is necessary to give the definition of those three social science disciplines.
1)History is the science which studies events and situations in chronological order.
2) Sociology is the study of group life. 1[1]
3) Politology is the study of policy, which means the study of governing.
From the historical point of view it is important to mention the background of conflicts in Somalia. There are following periods of country’s modern development.
1)Colonialism. Under Italian and British rule (1930-1950).
2)The UN Trusteeship . At the end of World War II, Somalia enjoyed prosperity and progress under a 10-year UN trusteeship from 1950 to 1960.
3) Independence. On July 1, 1960, British Somaliland united with Italian Somaliland to form the independent Somali Republic.
4) The Military Coup, which lead to Barre’s socialist regime, supported by the Soviet Union (1969- 1980).
5)       The Ogaden (Ethiopian) War took place in early 1980s. By that time The United States became Somalias largest source of economic and military aid, established a military and naval facility at Berbera, provided weapons, held frequent consultations with the Somali regime, and helped Somalia resist an invasion by Ethiopia in 1982.
6)       The Civil War (1988 – 1992). The central government was dissolved and clans fought for control of the country. When it was clear that the international relief effort was fuelling the fighting that had caused the famine in the first place, the international community considered armed intervention as a solution.
7)    (Since 1992) The U.S. and other nations withdrew their troops in 1994 and the last United Nations forces were withdrawn in 1995. The inhabitants of Somalia suffered from famine, so United Nations supplied food and humanitarian aid. After the interference of UN Organization, a new government was formed in Somalia. The main duty of historician is to note the essential events, at the same time, the goal of politician is to make conclusions which would be relevant in the modern politics. >From the political point of view, Somalia remains a fragmented country both politically and administratively. Despite continuing stabilization in the Northwest Zone of Somaliland and limited but encouraging progress in the Northeast Zone of Puntland, humanitarian personnel have faced varied and complex challenges. In the Central and Southern Zone in particular, insecurity prevailed, and great care was taken throughout the year to safeguard the lives of staff.
From the the socioilogical position it is important to note social structure of the country.
The pastoral clan-families constitute about 85 per cent of the population.The remaining southern clan-families are associated with mixed pastoralism and farming, and their identity is linked more to the villages in which they live than to the clans to which they belong. They are also politically weaker and inferior in social status to the pastoral clans. These agricultural communities constitute an appreciable portion of that Somali population which is ethnically and culturally distinct. They do not have the same warrior tradition as the nomads, are not as heavily armed, and were never as involved in the workings of the central government. Because their
lands became a battleground during the civil war, they became principal victims in the ensuing famine.
The Unicef and UN organizations made a large contribution into the development of Somalia. Nevertheless, famine, lack of safety , great poverty, faults of government and political system (for instance, traditions and moral rules are used in the social life more widely, than laws) in general are still the main problems of Somalia.

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