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Two Complex Crises that preceded the Civil War - Assignment Example

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“What Hath God Wrought?”: Emancipation, Economic, and Politics During the Jacksonian Era Part 1: The Missouri Compromise The Missouri Compromise was a complex political event that occurred in the year 1820. The conflict that eventually led to this Compromise involved the issue of whether the new territories and states joining the United States should be slave-owning or free states at the time when they joined the Union (Howe, 152)…
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Two Complex Crises that preceded the Civil War
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Download file to see previous pages Northerners were not universally concerned with the humanitarian aspects of slavery, but they were almost unanimously against the growing political power of the Southern landowner. The Southern states had a disproportionate power in the House of Representatives and in the Electoral College due to the 3/5 count of slaves. By 1819, this rule boosted the membership of the Southern states in the House by 17 representatives. While this seems like backwards thinking, since of course if the slaves were to become free citizens they would receive a full count in the House of Representatives, those votes would likely fall in the same theme as those of the Northern anti-slavery states. This would help re-balance the scales in the House, the same way that admitting states in pairs between slave-owning and free states balanced the power in the Senate (Howe, 150). In order to settle this debate about the balance of power, Henry Clay helped to mediate the historical Missouri Compromise, which agreed that slavery would be prohibited in the new territory north of the line of 36 degrees 30' latitude. For the South, this compromise ensured the continuation of their ideal that there would be no end to slavery without the consent of the local white population, by majority vote. It also set as a principle what had already been the precedent, that states should be admitted into the United States in pairs, continuing the balance of power in the Senate between the two (Howe, 154). What could be considered the most important outcome of this compromise was that it solidified and clarified the viewpoint of the South toward emancipation. The situation surrounding the Missouri Compromise sHowe,d that even those Southerners who had a more moderate stance toward slavery in theory, when it came down to practice they were obviously against even gradual emancipation (Howe, 155). While the Missouri Compromise prevented the Republican party from falling apart along the lines of the Northern and Southern states, it did later result in the the further division of Congress because of the practice of admitting states in pairs (Howe, 155, 836). The political party in the South known as the Radicals was gaining political power. These Radicals feared that the Missouri Compromise might lead to further compromises on the issue of slavery, and eventually end with the outlawing of all slave-owning practices (Howe, 402-403). Part 2: The Nullification Crisis This fear linked to a later controversy, the Nullification Crisis. This crisis centered around the Tariff of 1832, as the Radicals linked such tariffs with emancipation efforts (Howe, 402-403). This nullification would result in the removal of the federal price on land sales. If the group could pressure other states into following their lead on the tariff they could use it for slavery and protect the institution (The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History). In 1832, South Carolina declared federal tariff on land sales to be void, and raised an army to defend this nullification (The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History). The bill passed that nullified the tariff also mentioned the threat of secession from the Union if the tariff was not repealed (Howe, 404). President Jackson declared nullification illegal and had Congress pass the Force Act, which allows ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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