We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Dualism - Research Paper Example

Comments (0)
Summary
Name 1 Name Class Instructor Date The Evolution of Consciousness: A Case for Ethical Treatment of Animals Animal sentience and the ethical debate over what constitutes abuse of animal rights has been the subject of scientific and philosophical writings since the time of Aristotle…
Download full paper
GRAB THE BEST PAPER
Dualism
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
Dualism

Download file to see previous pages... Are medical researchers within their rights to experiment on animals if their research helps cure diseases? Do animal rights properly belong to the realm of philosophy and pedagogy, or is it a matter for the courts? At the crux of the issue is the meaning of “sentience.” Does feeling (i.e. physical sensation) equate to intelligence? The main thrust of this paper is to argue that the ability to feel pain establishes a minimum ethical criterion for not experimenting on animals and, if by extension, feelings and other “emotions” are deemed to be present, then animal protection should acquire the force of law. Aristotle wrote that animals meet this minimum criterion, arguing that they are endowed with perceptive sensitivity, “which appears inherent in all animals, for they have an innate power, which (is called) sensible perception…” (Aristotle, 354). But when it came to this sensitivity, Aristotle said, not all animals are created equal. He said that “sense being inherent Name 2 in some animals, a permanency of the sensible object is engendered, but in others it is not engendered,” as would be the case with insects, for instance (Aristotle, 354). Descartes made a similar distinction, but one which drew on man’s supposedly divine nature, asserting that while animals wield an intelligence that allows them to carry out basic tasks, such as finding shelter, this intelligence “is of a significantly inferior type to the rational intelligence of man, which comes from his soul” (Kang, 117). Ultimately, Descartes decided that animal intelligence cannot be compared to that of humans, because animals are unable to reason or communicate verbally. Nevertheless, whatever the limits of animal consciousness might be, countless theories have been developed to support the validity of animal intelligence. Physicalist and Neurofunctionalist – philosophical approaches Physicalism postulates that consciousness canbe identified with neuron activity, a position that allows for the possibility that intelligence is a characteristic humans and animals share, so long as they are built upon the same “biological, chemical and physical” properties (Allen, 2010). Such an approach also claims that questions about the relative intelligence of different species becomes “trivial” “once neuroscientists have carried out the non-trivial task of determining the physiological basis of consciousness in animals for which no reasonable doubt of their consciousness can be entertained” (Allen, 2010). Neurofunctionalism considers the existence of neural cortex activity in primates as “the most plausible candidate for being the neural correlate of phenomenal consciousness in these species” (Allen, 2010). In “On a Confusion About a Function of Consciousness,” N. Block associates phenomenal consciousness with brain processes in certain higher-level perceptual representations. “Since the evidence for Name 3 such processes is at least partially derived from animals, including other primates and rats, (Block’s) view is supportive of the that phenomenal consciousness is found in some nonhuman species (presumably most mammals)” (Allen, 2010). Other “first-order” theories take a more direct line, including representationalism, which insists that an animal’s ability to perceive its surroundings equates to conscious awareness. Aristotle and Locke took a ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Ontological argument - Rene Descartes
This research is aimed at elaboration of the famous doctrine of Ontological Argument in the light of the philosophies elaborated by the ancient early Christian scholar St. Anselm, eminent philosopher Rene Descartes (1596-1650), and his successor philosopher Nietzsche and at evaluation of Descartes’ hypothesis and its impact on the future philosophic theories.
14 Pages(3500 words)Research Paper
Predictably Irrational
The truth of the matter is that contradictions exist in the universe. The good news is that these contradictions can balance each other out, and, yes—even coexist at the same time while maintaining their own individual integrity. Consider the many religions of the world.
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Dualizm in V for Vendeta
The recurring pattern of people from different realms of the society in associating the movie with various culturally motivated and the concurrent politically prevailing conditions is significant in underpinning several myths and archetypes relevant in v for vendetta.
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Gottfried Leibniz-Consciousness and Unconsciousness
Although state of sleep and philosophy of unconsciousness has always been a matter of vital interest for the thinkers and philosophers since ever, yet the issue got particular attention of the discipline of philosophy during 17th and 18th centuries. Descartes, Locke, Leibniz, Kant and Nietzsche paid due to heed in respect of explaining the same in the light of their observation, meditation, belief and intellectual abilities.
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper
Dualism
Essentially, this means that the concept of dualism accepts and reinforces the existence of a creator, or the cause, that would have created other worldly objects. Hence, the concepts of yin and yan according to the Chinese philosophy
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay
Discuss
s invention in particular was quit influential in the mathematical revolution that allowed the use of geometric shapes in the expression of algebraic equations mostly in the 2 dimension coordinate system (21). Descartes was also the man credited with the philosophy of dualism
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper
Ancient Greek Philosopher Confucius
Heraclitus worked on three discourses i.e. universe, politics and science categorized under nature. His philosophy of life revolves around the nature of change ever present in the material universe. He
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper
Dualism
According to him, the physical and spiritual aspects are two incompatible substances that have found a way of ‘coexisting’ in the human body (“Cartesian Dualism: Interaction of the Mind and Body”). Dualism can be looked at from two stances, as a
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Philosophy of Religion
They found their own way of explaining- that some supernatural force is acting on them and they called it “God”. The belief was nothing but their fear of the unknown, the dark and uncertainty. This belief s continued till date. With gradual passage of time,
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper
3 researches
Where there is power, yang’s principle, there is the high possibility of submission, ying’s principle (Bellaimey). The main concern for the
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Dualism for FREE!
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us