Free

HW #18 - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
These standards are categorized as the National Primary and National Secondary Drinking Water standards. Primary drinking water standards outlines the Maximum…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER95.8% of users find it useful
HW #18
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "HW #18"

Difference between the Primary and the Secondary Drinking Water Standards Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is a United States agency that determines the standards for drinking water. These standards are categorized as the National Primary and National Secondary Drinking Water standards. Primary drinking water standards outlines the Maximum Contaminant Level as well as Maximum Contaminant Level Goal for specific water contaminants that may have adverse health effects on public health and are anticipated to be present in water. Primary drinking water standards therefore set standards for permissible contaminants such as microorganisms’ levels, disinfection products and byproducts, Organic and inorganic chemicals and radionuclide’s levels (EPA, 5). These standards are legally enforceable standards and must be adhered to.
Secondary drinking water standards on the other hand are non mandatory water quality standards for up to 15 contaminants and outlines secondary maximum contaminant levels. Unlike Primary Drinking water Standards, these standards are established by EPA to provide guidelines to help in managing the aesthetic quality of public water systems and are not enforceable and include guidelines for aspects of water quality such as taste, odor and color. Unlike Primary Drinking Water standards, Secondary Drinking Water contaminants are considered to present no risk to human health. The effects of these contaminants are grouped in three categories; aesthetic effects, technical effects and cosmetic effects and include: aluminum, color, chloride, fluoride, Iron, Copper, corrosivity, pH, manganese, sulfate, zinc, silver, forming agents and total dissolved solids (Johnson, 1521). Secondary drinking water standards therefore provide guidance to the public water systems on removing these chemicals to levels below which people will not notice.
Summary of the Article “The Tap Water Is Legal but May Be Unhealthy”
The federal law regulating tap water in United States of America has been in use for the past 35 years without review with respect to emerging contaminants thus poses serious health risks. While more than 60,000 chemicals are used within US, only 91 contaminants are regulated despite the fear that many chemicals are carcinogenic even at low concentrations. This has resulted into the exposure of over 62 million Americans to drinking water that did not meet guidelines. Research has also shown that some contaminants that are regulated pose lesser risk than those that are not regulated by EPA (Duhigg, 1). Officials such as Dr. Pankaj Parekh, the director of water quality division for the city of Los Angeles have also faced criticism from the residents as they try to go beyond hat is legally required. However, researchers and water experts have also complicated the whole issue by arguing that these toxic contaminants when consumed at extremely low doses over long period pose few risks and cost of removing such minute concentrations from water does not equal benefits.
Several studies have confirmed evidences suggesting that millions of American fall sick every year after drinking contaminated water which includes, cancer, birth defects and stomach upsets. Moreover, EPA which has the ultimate responsibility for safe water standards has also agreed to various research findings that conclude that many Americans drink water that do not meet standard. Arsenic concentrations that are associated with cancer have also been detected in many communities including Scottsdale, Ariz.; Tex., El Paso and Reno, Nev (Duhigg, 2). In this regard, any contaminations of the tap water that does not violate the law is not paid attention to hence innocent Americans are subjected to toxic chemicals. Due to existing gaps in the legislation, leaders in Los Angeles have asked congress to amend laws governing the main regulator’s way of assessing chemicals and cushion the agency against outside pressures.
While the discourse continues, there has been accumulation of toxic contaminants over the years since the passing of safe drinking water act in 1974. This law was passed when only 20 substances were regulated and the number of regulated contaminants increased to 91 in 2004. However, there has been no review since then thus the rate of accumulation of contaminants has increased and many have been associated with cancer according to EAP and other government scientists (Duhigg, 4). Another issue is the bromides that are regulated by the safe drinking water act but only tested when the water leaves the treatment plant. Studies have confirmed high risk concentrations though they don’t violate the law. There is increasing pollution of the water resources with new pollutants that need to be included in the current standards and be regulated.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has made efforts since the identification of contaminant, perchlorate that posed higher risk than the previously known risks. Led by Dr. Peter W. Preuss who headed EPA from 2004, they wanted to enforce tougher regulations for those companies polluting the environment. However this was faced by tougher opposition and lobbying of the law makers and up to date, safe drinking water act do not regulate perchlorate and other many substances analyzed by Dr. Preuss’ department and found to pose risk. Moreover, the department has noted that there are still tens of thousands of chemicals that have not been assessed thus they cannot write laws against them. Nonetheless, the head of EPA has announced reforms that are geared at protecting the urgency’s scientists like Dr. Preuss from outside pressures.
The effects of water pollution are evident throughout Los Angeles despite the fact that there exist regulations to standardize drinking water. Studies and laboratory tests presented in the summary above shows that tap water contain toxic chemicals that are associated with kidney and liver damage as well as cancer and neurological disease. In this regard, it is clear the law regulating drinking water that was reviewed in 2000 is outdated and there exists a legal gap that predisposes Americans to high risk of contaminated water that could lead to dangerous health risks. EPA should therefore analyze a host of different chemicals and continually review primary drinking water standards to ensure safe and high quality water is delivered to the people.
Works Cited
Duhigg, Charles. "That Tap Water Is Legal but May Be Unhealthy." The New York Times. The New York Times, 16 Dec. 2009. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. .
EPA. "National Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations: Analytical Methods for Chemical and Microbiological Contaminants and Revisions to Laboratory Certification Requirement." Water: Drinking Water Standards. United States Environmental Protection Authority, 6 Mar. 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. .
Johnson, Branden B. "Public Views on Drinking Water Standards as Risk Indicators." Risk Analysis: An International Journal 28.6 (2008): 1515-1530. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“HW #18 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
HW #18 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1665400-hw-18
(HW #18 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
HW #18 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words. https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1665400-hw-18.
“HW #18 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1665400-hw-18.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF HW #18

HW

...? Statistical Reasoning in Public Health HW#2 Question one a What is the estimated unadjusted mean difference in hourly wages for females as compared to males? Females earn 2.1 dollars less than males per hour when other variable s are not taken into account. 2. Report a 95% confidence interval for this difference. The 95% CI for this difference ranges from -2.98 to -1.22 3. Write a sentence interpreting both the unadjusted mean difference and the corresponding confidence interval. When not considering other variables, women in 1985 earned approximately 2.1 dollars less than the men did; and 95% of the times, the actual values for this estimate would fall between 2.98 dollars to 1.22 dollars less then what the men earned...
4 Pages(1000 words)Math Problem

Hw

...Hw Project management involves processes and activities for development and implementation of plans for achievements of specific goals. It involves organization, motivation, and management of resources through nine knowledge areas that this paper discusses. Below are the nine knowledge areas of a project. Project Integration management Project Scope management Project Time management Project Cost management Project Quality management Project Human resource management Project Communications management Project Risk management Project Procurement management Project integration management involves establishment of a charter and a management plan for a project. It also entails project implementation, monitoring, and...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

HW

...Addiction Addiction Addiction is the both the physical or virtual things individuals does and acts as a barrier to the blood-brain of someone. These has led to the imbalance of the chemicals in the brain and leads to someone to feeling of guilty, shame, failure, rejection, anxiety and failure. These addictions may be substances which are physically taken into the human systems, drugs being the most of the addiction most individuals encounter with. The factors which cause the addiction are emotional, circumstantial, physical and mental (Uhl, 2010). The addiction of the drugs; mostly alcoholism has a lot of contribution to my behavior This is mostly done through peer pressure in the individual’s life style. The body system is mostly...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

HW

...Concept of Sexuality and Sensuality al Affiliation Concept of Sexuality and Sensuality Are you comfortable with the concept of your sexuality and sensuality? What aspects, if any, of your self-image may hinder your ability to have intimacy? Yes, I am comfortable with my personal concept of sexuality and sensuality. So far, I do not have any qualms or known aspects of my self-image that could potentially hinder my ability to have intimacy. From answering the sexual attitudes test, I recognized that I am comfortable in discussing and being exposed to varied sexual situations and concerns; and these do not affect, in any way my current sexual preferences and orientation. 2. Did the quiz highlight any areas that may be uncomfortable... of...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

HW

... due: Non-verbal communication Nonverbal communication is a form of communication without the use of spoken language. It includes gestures, facial expressions, and body positions, as well as unspoken presuppositions, cultural and environmental factors that may affect any encounter between people. The video clip shows a man and two ladies making an advertisement using non-verbal communication. The following non-verbal communication techniques were employed: facial expressions, gestures and body positions. The facial expressions have been used effectively to indicate excitement (0:06-0:21), followed by shock (0:26-0:29) and then fright (0:30-0:49) and finally relief (1:11-1:21). Gestures have been used effectively as well... due: Non-verbal...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

HW

... Question An increase in the demand for American-made goods will? Answer: Increase the demand for dollars on the foreign exchange market Question 2: Currency traders expect the value of the dollar to fall. What effect will this have on the demand for dollars and the supply of dollars in the foreign exchange market? Answer: Demand for dollars will decrease, and supply for dollars will increase Question 3: Figure 18.1 – The depreciation of the dollar is represented as a movement from? Answer: D to C Question 4: Figure 18.1 – Europe suffers a recession. Assuming all else remains constant; this would be represented as a movement from; Answer: A to D Question 5: Suppose the U.S. government deficit causes interest rates in the United... Question An ...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

Hw

... Organizational Theory Crisis and conflicts are inevitable in an organization. In leading a group out of crisis, it is important for leaders to practice empathy. This gives the employees an expectation of a difficult situation and they develop strategies to mitigate the problems. They also need to employ an engagement strategy that allows the employees to adapt to the new transition and accept the elimination of the older system. Using energy, leaders support the employees in achieving the organizational realities. Enforcement on the other hand, enables leaders to solidify the perceptions and behaviors of the employees to work with the new system. I would start the process through engagement to enable the employees to cope... Organizational...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

HW

...Measuring Dimensions of Organisations College: Measuring Dimensions of Organisations 1st Org GOPRO, 2nd Org MORNING STAR Formalization Many written rules 12345678910 Few rules Specialization Separate tasks 12345678910 Overlapping Hierarchy Tall hierarchy of authority 12345678910 Flat hierarchy of authority Technology Product 12345678910 Service External environment Stable 12345678910 Unstable Culture Clear norms and values 12345678910 Ambiguous norms and values Professionalism High professional training 12345678910 Low professional training Goals Well-defined goals 12345678910 Goals not defined Size Small 12345678910 Large Organizational mindset Mechanical system 12345678910... Dimensions of...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Summary

...Article Summaries Suthar, Surindra. and Singh, Pavitra. Household solid waste generation and composition in different family size and socio-economic groups: A case study. Sustainable Cities and Society, 14 (2015), 56-63. Web. April 18, 2015. Summary According to Suthar and Singh (2015) in the article, “Household solid waste generation and composition in different family size and socioeconomic groups: A case study”, Household Waste (HW) make up a large composition of municipal solid waste (MSW). The design of an effective solid management plan has to take into consideration the importance of household waste. The study aimed at “investigating the quantity and quality of household waste in terms of...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

HW

...HW HW A. The graph for the enrolment over time is built using Diagram option in Excel (Anderson, Sweeney, Williams, Camm, and Cochrane, 2015). The graph shows that student enrolment constantly growth over time. Since the year 2000, the student enrolment grows faster comparing previous years. B. The steam and leaf diagram is built using hundreds as a stem and the rest part as a leaf (Mendenhall, Beaver, and Beaver, 2013). The diagram shows that the ranges with higher frequencies are 2000-2100, 2100-2200, 2700-2800, 3100-3200. The diagram is...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic HW #18 for FREE!

Contact Us