Nobody downloaded yet

Alshareef_ENVM510_M4GradedAssign - Assignment Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
In any particular research, when a researcher encourages or selects a particular outcome over another, it introduces very many systematic errors into…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.6% of users find it useful
Alshareef_ENVM510_M4GradedAssign
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Alshareef_ENVM510_M4GradedAssign"

Download file to see previous pages Different types of bias that exist result in mistaken estimates of the exposures’ effects on the risk of the disease.
In epidemiological studies, researchers encounter two types of primary bias: the selection bias and the recall bias. The selection bias arises where the relationship between the exposure and the disease is very different for those who participate in the study than for those who would be theoretical eligible for the study but do not participate. The common consequences for the bias in selection are the difference between exposures and outcomes for those who are eligible and for those selected for the study (Yarbro, Wujcik & Gobel, 2011). For instance, in the study, the difference in the number of people available for study and those targeted is quite significant. The estimated population exposed to benzene was 9,024 but only 3,249 participants were located. According to Friis & Sellers (2009), illnesses and death are possible reasons for this. This is most likely to result in inaccuracy.
Recall bias results when the participants recall past exposures inaccurately. If the participants were not able to recall benzene exposures clearly, the results would be invalid. Some participants may also lie or choose to exaggerate the exposure levels for financial gain. Moreover, the methods used in collecting data may lead to inaccurate results if they had some errors. In the study, a misdiagnosis of people with leukemia or those exposed with benzene would occur. When the method of estimating the associations between leukemia and the exposure is inaccurate, the result would be either an under-estimation or over-estimation of the actual association (Yarbro, Wujcik & Gobel, 2011).
According to “Threats to Validity” artcile (2013), “The prediction of the potential sources leading to selection bias is one way of reducing the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Alshareef_ENVM510_M4GradedAssign Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words”, n.d.)
Alshareef_ENVM510_M4GradedAssign Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1657821-alshareefenvm510m4gradedassign
(Alshareef_ENVM510_M4GradedAssign Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words)
Alshareef_ENVM510_M4GradedAssign Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words. https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1657821-alshareefenvm510m4gradedassign.
“Alshareef_ENVM510_M4GradedAssign Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1657821-alshareefenvm510m4gradedassign.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Alshareef_ENVM510_M4GradedAssign

Assisted Suicide

...?Running Head: Assisted Suicide and Number: of Paper: Assisted Suicide Submitted: Introduction Assisted suicide should be adopted as the best way of relieving patients of their suffering. It is indisputable that doctors try their best to treat patients by diagnosing and prescribing drugs but this does not always relieve the pain and suffering the patients, especially those with terminal illnesses such as cancer and diabetes among others, go through (Morrison, 2008). When one is suffering from a terminal illness, he knows that death is an eventuality and therefore, it becomes a question of when and not whether he will die. Everyone has the right to die with dignity and it is for this purpose that they should be allowed to choose when and how...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

The Construction and Purpose of Maya Pyramids

...Discuss the construction and purpose of Maya pyramids Pyramids, the ancient form of geometrical constructions were built to perform sacrificial rituals, sacred religious purposes or as the burial chambers for the kings. When the term pyramid is superimposed into the context of Mayan Civilization and culture, the aim gets broader because the same acted dual roles: religious and ritualistic. Within this context, one can easily identify that the purpose to construct Mayan Pyramids was to fulfill their unique rituals and religious/ cultural needs. The Maya Pyramids are one of the best visible examples of the development of architecture and engineering during ancient times. Besides, Maya Pyramids acted the role of a unique link between the God... the...
7 Pages(1750 words)Term Paper

International Finance

...?a) The weighted average cost of the Vagabond plc, before consideration of the project, is calculated as follows. Market Value of Equity Type of instrument Total Number of Shares Current Market Value Market Value of equity (?) Cost of Equity (ke) Equity Shares 2,000,000,000 0.36 720,000,000 9.50% Calculation of Cost of Equity (ke)     Table 1     Ke = Rf + (Rm-Rf) x Beta   Ke 9.50%       Where Rf = 5 Rm= 10 Beta=0.9 Market value of Debt Type of instrument Current Market Value (?) Cost of Debt (kd) Bank Overdraft 169,800,000 6% Redeemable bond 310,200,000 3.52% Calculation of Cost of debt (kd)  Table 2 Current Market Value (94) Coupon Payment   Dec-11 4 Dec-12 4 Dec-13 4 Dec-14 4 Dec-15 4 Redemption at premium 102     IRR (Pre tax) 4.88% IRR...
14 Pages(3500 words)Coursework

The Place of Interest in the Theory of Production

...The Place of Interest in the Theory of Production Oskar Lange’s “The Place of Interest in the Theory of Production”, is on the topic on the place of interest in the general production theory. Before embarking on examining what Mr. Lange has tried to show in his paper, it would be nice to say a few words about Mr. Lange, the author of the paper I have chosen for the purpose of discussion. Oskar Lange was a Polish lawyer and economist who had experience teaching at the University of Michigan and at the University of Chicago (http://cepa.newschool.edu). He was recognized as having socialist tendencies and was “known for advocating the use of market pricing tools in socialist systems and providing the earliest model of market socialism... Place of...
10 Pages(2500 words)Book Report/Review

World Vision's Marketing Strategy

...Running Head: Marketing to save lives World Vision's Marketing Strategy Marketing to save lives World Vision's Marketing Strategy [Writer's Name] [Institute's Name] Marketing to save lives: World Vision's Marketing Strategy Question number 4 Nash, (2000) says that there are two main groups of target audiences that are to be targeted by the World Vision and these are the ones including church people and the second group is the general New Zealand based audience. In both of these cases the marketing strategy is being applied by the organization so the target audient is aware of the goals and aims that the World Vision has and the strategies by which the World vision is pursuing the goals that it has. Ferrell, Hartline, and Lucas, (2002... Head:...
2 Pages(500 words)Case Study

Summerize

...Summary: ‘Managing Without Growth: Slower by Design, Not Disaster’ The book by Peter A. Victor, “Managing without Growth: Slower by Design, Not Disaster”, is an excellent document within its limited scope unfathomable like an ocean. The book challenges on the issues of priority of rich nations those continue to yield economic growth as a matter of over-arching purpose in the area of their economic policy. Soon, after the Second World War, economic growth attained the top most priority list of almost all of the first world countries. The book “Managing without Growth: Slower by Design, Not Disaster” presents and puts emphasis on three basic arguments pertaining to the matter. Based on these arguments Peter Victor suggests the rich countries... ‘Managing ...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

German and Germans class

... November Assignment Germans, like people belonging to other nationalities around the world, have a number of stereotypes. Most of themare strong, efficient and friendly. This is truly admirable when it comes to meeting Germans because of their ability to have a laid back attitude and talk to other people around them. Americans are a little different when it comes to making conversation because most Americans living in big cities like New York and California do not have the time to stop and talk to foreigners. Furthermore, Germans have also always been known to have excellent engineering skills and make the best beer in the world. However, these traits are similar to American traits to an extent because friendliness and laid back attitude... November...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Radiation Risks and Paediatric Computed Tomography (CT): a cross-sectional study of medical practice and awareness of radiation related health risks and strategies to minimise radiation exposure to children among physicians

...Radiation Risks and Pediatric Computed Tomography (CT) Institute’s EXECUTIVE STUDY This research proposal is a proposal for a cross-sectional study of medical practice and awareness of radiation related health risks and strategies to minimize radiation exposure to children among physicians. PROBLEM STATEMENT To study awareness of risks of Radiations and Pediatric Computed Tomography and formulate strategies to minimize radiation exposure to children. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The research objectives are; To study how aware people are regarding the risks that are caused to human health due to the exposure with radiations To find out how we can cause awareness among people regarding the risks of exposure to radiations and Computed Tomography... Risks and...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Proposal

Alshareef_ENVM510_M8GradedAssign

...Alshareef ENVM510 M8 Graded Assignment ID Alshareef ENVM510 M8 Graded Assignment Osteoporosis refers to a disease known typically for weakening the bones making them fragile and prone to fractures. The disease develops through the loss of calcium and other vital minerals in the bones that make them lose their density hence easy fracturing. Osteoporosis originates from a Greek name meaning porous bones. The disease is progressive in nature with bines losing their mass. A reduction in bone mineral density and a reduction in the proteins variety in the bones register making the bones easily fracture. The disease makes the bones thin and very week leading to debilitating pain...
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment

ABC Hospital Risk Management Plan

...RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN Purpose of the ABC Hospital risk management plan The purpose of this Performance Improvement plan is to develop a well- planned and organization-wide approach that will process the performance, analysis, and improvement of ABC Hospital. The major aims behind this improvement are to ensure protection of patients and staff members and the entire organization’s financial assets as well as its reputation and position in the society. In health care institutions, risk management is aimed to identify, assess and decrease risks for patients, visitors of the establishments, medical staff and organizational assets (Kavaler & Spiegel, 2003). A risk management plan, consequently, is designed to assure people covered within... MANAGEMENT PLAN...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Assignment on topic Alshareef_ENVM510_M4GradedAssign for FREE!

Contact Us