Demographic Transition - Assignment Example

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Demographic Transition Name Tutor Institution Course Date Abstract The population of a give region changes over time due to various factors. Demographics transition model explains how his changes take place over the years considering social, physical and environmental factors affect it…
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Download file to see previous pages It finally stabilizes in the fourth stage of the demographic transition, as a result of low both birth and death rates. Consequently, most of the developing countries are in this stage. Introduction They are several theories and models describing population dynamics. One of these models is demographic Transition model. It refers to the change of high birth rates and death rates to low birth rates and death rates, as a country grows from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system. It focuses on the changes in the population from unstable to where it stabilizes. Demographic Transition refers to the change from high birth rates and death rates to low birth rates and death rates, as a country grows from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system. It is normally represented by a demographic transition model. This model gives a description of population change over time. It has a basis on an interpretation by the American demographer Warren Thompson that begun in 1929, of the observed transitions, or changes, in birth and death rates in industrialized societies throughout the past two hundred years or so (Caldwell,et al, 2006). The demographic transition model has four stages which are commonly classified as; pre-modern, urbanizing/industrializing, mature industrial and post industrial. Stage one is related with pre modern times, it also seen as the pre-industrial society. It is characterized by a balance between birth and death rates that is high birth rates and death rates that are roughly in balance. It is believed that all human population experienced this until late 18thcentury when Western Europe broke the balance. Since both birth and death rates were roughly equal and high, population growth in this stage is very slow. Actually, the growth rate we less than 0.05% for over 10,000years since Agricultural Revolution (Caldwell,et al, 2006). This characteristic gave this stage a name “High Stationary Stage” of population growth. The high death rate in this stage is as a result of; occasional food shortages and inadequate knowledge of disease prevention and cure. On the other end, high birth rates were as a result of high fertility rates. This stage is refers to as the urbanizing or industrializing stage. Here, population increases as there is a fall in death rate while birth rates remain the high. In Europe, the changes leading to this stage was the 18th century Agricultural Revolution, were initially slow. However, the fall in death rates in developing countries in the 20th century tended to be substantially faster. The death rate decline is due initially to two factors; higher agricultural practice and better transportation which has brought forth improvement food supply, thus prevented deaths brought about by lack of water and starvation. These agricultural improvements include selective breeding, crop rotation and seed drill technology. Another factor is the improvement of public health; this reduces mortality especially in childhood. These improvements include; improvement in sewerage, water supply, general personal hygiene and food handling. Apart from lo death rate the stage is characterized by changing age structure of the population. The third stage, move the population towards stability though birth rate decline. There are various ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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