Nobody downloaded yet

Philosophy - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Kathryn Schulz has thrown down a challenge to anyone considering themselves a know-it-all. Her argument is quite simple and is based on inductive reasoning. Throughout history humans have developed theories to explain the nature and operation of the world around them…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.1% of users find it useful
Philosophy
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Philosophy"

Download file to see previous pages Descartes would respond to this challenge by saying that there is one thing we can know for sure, and that is that there is a “we,” or at least an “I.” This is certain beyond anyone possible doubt, because doubt necessitates it. If I doubt that I exist, then there must be an “I” to have the experience of doubt. So from doubt emerges certainty. This process is entirely mental and depends not at all on what the senses tell us is actually out there. That is good, because our senses may be lying to us. Descartes’ evil genius or demon could have our brains floating in a vat or our bodies hooked up to a bio-chamber like the ones on The Matrix. This being the case, how can I know that the street I see from my window is actually there? How can I be sure that the flowers I smell are there? A sadistic entity might deceive me into thinking that I am taking a whiff of a bed of roses when in actuality I’m smelling a pile of horse dung. In the same way, my sandwich might be a plate of sand and the music I listen to the screeching of fingernails on a chalkboard. All of this could have been set up for the amusement of the demonic genius who controls me. But there is one thing that said villain cannot do. He cannot trick me into believing that I exist if I don’t. ...
Thus it is my rational mind, using the tools of science, that will get at the truth, separating fact from fiction in what my senses say. Nonsense, says David Hume. People can have ideas, even complex sets of ideas, that all fit together and sound good yet are totally fallacious. Aristotle developed a system of physics that fit this description perfectly. I can develop a theory that a young lady loves me, based on such rational notions as, “After all, I’m a fine young man, and don’t young ladies tend to fall in love with fine young men?” But when I test the theory out and ask her for a date she might say no. My ideas of what he feelings must be had no correlation with the outside world at all. So, for Hume, all we can know is what our senses tell us. But he carries this a step further, saying that f all we can know is what our senses tell us, then deductions made on the basis of observations can never be trusted. An example can be seen in a game of billiards. The stick hits a ball that hits another ball, and all are in motion one after the other. We conclude from this that there is some sort of force that one object passes to the other and develop theories about inertia and momentum. But, did we see this actual force? No. We saw a stick make contact with a ball, which set out in motion and struck another ball, which in turn launched into motion. But, for all we know, one did not cause the other. The balls may have some sort of internal property that sets them off, and it is sheer coincidence that this principle kicked in at the moment each was struck by the other. This being the case, what can we ever really know? Well, we can know that stuff happens. How or why it occurs, on the other hand, is forever ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Philosophy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 3”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1424838-philosophy
(Philosophy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words - 3)
https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1424838-philosophy.
“Philosophy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words - 3”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1424838-philosophy.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Philosophy

Philosophy

... Philosophy Philosophy engages five areas of inquiry: logic, ethics, politics, metaphysics and esthetics (Durant, 1961). Socrates, an Ancient Greek philosopher is largely regarded as the father or Western philosophical thinking. His student Plato is credited with providing the most insightful representations of Socrates’ philosophies in his works and dialogues (p. 1). Plato’s representation of Socrates’ philosophy is credited with having perpetually influenced logic and epistemology and not only Plato’s own philosophy but the development of Western philosophy (Anagnostopoulos, 2011). Karl Marx’s philosophy as expressed in The Communist Manifesto of 1848 illustrates the development of Western philosophical thinking (Russell, 2004... ). An...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Philosophy

...? Personal Philosophy: Leadership in School and Community Relations My personal philosophy on leadership in school and community relations is guided by the concept that despite the public character of school and community we as citizens are stakeholders in the success and peaceful co-existence of the school as a public/community institution. As Bagin and Galleger (2005) inform, the school system, by nature of its “public character” is jointly owned by the community and its citizens (p. 10). However, ownership comes with responsibility. If that responsibility is going to be shared, frank and honest information relative to the school system is necessary for helping stakeholders establish informed opinions...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Philosophy

...?Essay Question A) While there is a general dictionary understanding of a gadfly, when examining the lives of Socrates, Martin Luther King, and Malcolm X, one can view their thematic similarities and come to understand the definition of gadfly incarnate. In these regards, all men share a similar propensity towards upsetting the status quo. In the case of Socrates it was through his influence on the Athenian youth that upset the upper level powers that ultimately put him to death. In the instances of Dr. King and Malcom X they work towards upsetting the status quo through fighting, albeit in different ways, for equal rights. B) In letters from a Birmingham Jail, Martin Luther King Jr. speaks of a creative tension that must exist... Question A) ...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Philosophy

... nonexistent categories. Using the mind (perceptions of the mind) to explain the body is essentially the same as using the body (descriptions of the brain) to explain the mind. This conceptual confusion produces the mistake that the mind and body are separate things, while in reality they are concepts fundamentally reflecting the same individual human being. Bibliography Descartes, Rene. Meditations on First Philosophy. Ed. Karl Ameriks and Desmond M. Clarke. Trans. John Cottingham. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.... Descartes’ fifth Meditation, the philosopher attempts to rebuild the foundation he deconstructed in the previous chapters through a systematic process of doubt. Part of the foundation Descartes wishes to rebuild is...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Philosophy

... The soul of a collectivist Roak’s in his speech illustrates that if a person fails to listen to his colleagues or his kinsmen, then he is not ready to listen to his speech. He contrasts current leadership style and form of ruling to initial forms of leadership such as the napoleon. If a person is given an opportunity as a leader, such a person should exercise his authority in a way that all members of the society feel satisfied. Roak’s illustration is that, if one person can be satisfied with how leaders exercise their duties then this effect should be applied in ruling bigger margin of population (Lieberman, Richter and Rank). Taking into account leaders like peter who only believed that one’s somebody makes a mistake he should... The soul...
3 Pages(750 words)Assignment

Philosophy

...Philosophy Introduction Aristotle argues in Book VIII of the Nicomachean Ethics that friendships based upon utility or pleasures are not enduring. Aristotle bases his arguments upon certain premises that aim at proving his arguments. Aristotle points out that nature of causes determines the nature of the causes’ objectives and the friendships differ in species (Aristotle, 78). Aristotle claims that to love for pleasure is only to love for utility as love for utility x while mean an individual loves x for pleasure (Pangle 56). Accordingly, utility varies with each individual, as older people are more inclined to seeking utility relationships (Aristotle, 1156a25). In this case, Aristotle clarifies that what is relative is...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Philosophy

... of God and a reunification with the greater light. Works Cited Provost, Wallace. “Augustine and the Emergence of Western Christianity.” June 24, 2006 MacDonald, Scott. “Illumination.” Islamic Philosophy. Cambridge: Routledge, 1998. Midmore, Brian. “The Trinity According to Augustine and Barth.” A Passion for Faith and Grace. (April 3, 2006). June 26, 2006 < http://www.passionforgrace.org.uk/doctrine1.html> Pasnau, Robert. “Divine Illumination.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2002. June 24, 2006 ... Neo-Platonism and Augustine Epistemological illumination uses our human sensory experience of sight as a means of identifying the world around us to form an analogy to the way in which our minds and intellect are used as a...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Philosophy- Philosophy and Psychiatry

..., especially if the patient is not in pain, psychiatrists should not approve assisted suicide requests. If a patient is in great pain that is different. However, if a patient is terminally ill, but not in pain, just dealing with the reality of death, assisted suicide would be akin to murder. There is never a justification for psychiatric euthanasia. Because of the reasons listed above, like psychiatrists bond with the patient, a psychiatristss job describtion, and the unknowns of mental illness, psychiatric euthanasia could never be justified. It goes against what a psychiatrist should be. If psychiatrists start giving up on patients, then patients will feel no one cares. This attitude could raise the suicide rate. As a student of...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Philosophy

... Philosophy Definition: Natural evil is one of the two kinds of evil according to Hicks which is characterized by pain and suffering in terms of different aspects such as physical and mental. It lacks the element of will or decision making by the person involved (Hick 106). Human or moral evil is equated to the degree of wickedness due to the fact that it is the kind of evil that is willed and chosen by the person himself (p. 105-106). This is a resultant of the presence of human freedom (p. 104). Soul building according to Hick is the improvement of the human person because he defined the concept as the ‘courage to face suffering’ which is fundamental in the achievement of a good human character (p. 104-105). A person or human... Philosophy...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Philosophy

...Written Assignment: This assignment has FIVE questions; I indicate the points assigned to each 5 points) Define the following terms as they are used by Hick. (a) NATURAL EVIL – This type of evil, which Hicks calls “non-moral,” is used to refer to things like “suffering or pain, both physical and mental.” (106) In other words, those things which are unpleasant to experience without necessarily being willfully caused. (b) HUMAN or MORAL EVIL – Hicks uses this term to mean “wickedness,” which he explains as evil “in its relation to human freedom and responsibility.” (106) In other words, sin. (c) SOUL BUILDING – Also referred to as “soul making,” this is the process in which “free beings [grapple] with the tasks and challenges... Assignment:...
2 Pages(500 words)Article
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Philosophy for FREE!

Contact Us