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Research the principles of insulin production via genetic engineering - Essay Example

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Principles of Insulin Production through Genetic Engineering I Introduction Insulin is an important hormone because it plays a big part in maintaining sugar level homeostasis in the human body. The inability of the body to control its sugar level will result in hyperglycemia, which can lead to diabetes mellitus…
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Research the principles of insulin production via genetic engineering
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Download file to see previous pages Today, however, insulin is commercially produced through genetic engineering, a process that makes available to diabetic patients worldwide massive quantities of the hormone without difficulty. Despite its evident usefulness, genetic engineering remains continuously haunted by ethical issues and considerations. II Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level The human body maintains a consistent internal environment and one of the factors subject to this homeostasis is blood sugar, or glucose, level. At normal level, blood sugar in the body must be within 80 mg for every 100 cm3 blood. In the event that blood sugar falls below or rises above that level spurs the body mechanism to make corrective measures, a process called negative feedback, so as to restitute glucose to homeostatic level (Givens and Reiss 2002, p. 56). The homeostasis of glucose primarily involves the organs of pancreas and liver. As blood sugar level rises, such as after a high carbohydrate meal, the pancreas secretes insulin to correct that level. Insulin is a hormone whose presence in the bloodstream indicates to the liver to start converting glucose into glycogen and store it. The amount of insulin in the bloodstream indicates the amount of glucose to be converted and stored. ...
56-57). III Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM hereafter), the most common type of diabetes, is a disease caused by a metabolism disorder related to insulin function. Diabetes mellitus is defined by the World Health Organisation in 1980 as “a state of chronic hyperglycemia which may result from many environmental and genetic factors often acting jointly” (Ekoe 2008, pp. 5-6). There are four types of diabetes mellitus: type 1, which is insulin-dependent (IDDM); type 2, which is non-insulin dependent (NIDDM); diabetes secondary to other diseases, and; gestational diabetes, all of which have the common factor of hyperglycemia or high blood glucose. IDDM account for 5% to 10% of diabetes cases and NIDDM for 90% to 95%; the last two types account for remaining insignificant cases (Poretsky 2010, pp. 108, 116). Aside from hyperglycemia, the clinical symptoms of the disease usually include polyuria or the tendency for frequent passing of urine, polydipsia or excessive thirst, polyphagia or excessive desire to eat, weight loss despite polyphagia, glycosuria or presence of glucose in the urine, ketoacidosis, visual changes, skin infections, sepsis and pruritus. However, except for hypoglycemia, not all patients suffer from all or the same symptoms and not all persons who suffer from any of such symptoms are necessarily afflicted with diabetes (Ekoe 2008, pp. 5-6). DM is widely thought to be caused by genetic factors, although the mechanism has not been exactly pinpointed. The etiological explanation, however, of the disease is autoimmunity in which ?-cells producing insulin are being destroyed resulting in insulin deficiency. The consequence is homeostatic failure of blood sugar level. Aside from genetic predisposition, infection and environmental ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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