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Genetic Engineering of Crops Technology - Research Paper Example

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This paper will elaborate what GMO does and how it works by tackling two questions: what is the science involved in the genetic engineering of crops and how genetic engineering differs from more traditional genetic manipulations such as hybridization…
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Genetic Engineering of Crops Technology
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Download file to see previous pages In some cases, GM crops may yield entirely new products that are not normally derived from traditional crops such as medicines (Berg & Mertz, 2010).
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is found in all living things. It is a complex self-replicating molecule used by cells to pass hereditary characteristics or traits from generation to generation. It carries information that an organism needs to make protein molecules - the structural and functional constituents of the cell. Proteins are long chains composed of smaller molecules called amino acids. There are 20 different kinds of amino acids that determine how the protein will work in the cell, the structure it will take or the job it will do. DNA is the blueprint that determines the order of amino acids for any given protein. DNA differs with each species (British Medical Association, 1999).
Genes that are moved from one species to another are called transgenes. Crop varieties can be created by transgenic engineering, which is the deliberate human introduction of a gene from one species, modified crops or GM crops. Although this module focuses on modifying agriculturally important plants, the principles are the same in relation to both animal husbandry and medicine, to others which are often referred to as genetically (Donnellan, 2004).
Herbicides and insecticides are expensive, can pollute both the air and water and may also have negative health effects on those who apply them or work around them. In many less developed countries, the lack of safety equipment and training often results in serious health injuries and environmental degradation linked to the use of agricultural chemicals. It is the benefit to all to reduce pesticide and herbicide use (James, 2008). Farmers often rotate crops in fields, periodically sowing plants such as alfalfa that is associated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria in their roots. GM technology is heavily covered by patents. Perceived intellectual property issues create an impression of a barrier to technology transfer. There is an urgent need for more informed policy debate about the role of intellectual property rights in biotechnology and technology transfer.  ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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