The Relationship between history, theory, and doctrine in the evolution of military tactics - Essay Example

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Theory, History and Doctrine in the Evolution of Military Tactics Introduction Military tactic is a part of the military strategy employed during battle. This tactic is learned through military doctrines and evolved through the officer or soldier’s own experience whenever he has survived battle…
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Download file to see previous pages Military Tactic and Strategy Military tactics are the means and art of which an organization of army employs techniques and weaponry to defeat the enemy during battle (Clausewitz, 1832). It is the lowest level of military planning, followed by operational, and encompassed by the highest level which is military strategy. Military strategy has evolved to mean more than war time but now encompass even peace time and the strategies involved to prevent war itself (Lider, 1981). Previously, Clausewitz (1832) defined military strategy as “the deployment of the battles as the means toward the attainment of the object of war,” (12). Hart (1980) also re-joined with his description as “the art of distributing and applying military means to fulfil the ends of policy,” (page) both of which imply armed violence. However, it is also notable that strategy meant more that the use of armed violence but covered policy, political, economic, ideological and techno-scientific means of nations in pursuit of victory (Lider, 1981). Earle (1944) included in military strategy even activities of peacetime to encompass non-military factors of economic, psychological, moral, political, and technological aspects to become an art of controlling all the resources of a nations and its allies to secure vital interests against enemies, perceived or otherwise. It integrates all military efforts and policies as a “grand strategy” for peace and war time. War is the object of which should be prevented or prepared for in peacetime. Osgood (1962) also defined military strategy as “nothing less than the overall plan for utilizing the capacity for armed coercion – in conjunction with the economic, diplomatic, and psychological instruments of power – to support foreign policy most effectively by over, covert and tacit means,” (5). Third definition of military strategy included both the means and the ends so that it uses the entire state power or its aggregate potentials to attain the whole or majority of its political goals (Lider, 1981). Holloway (1979) added in the grand strategy all elements of a society’s power to support its security objectives with the main one being the prevention of “the loss of our way of life” (19). Principles of Military Tactics There are a variety of military tactics employed in battlefield. One of them is the United States’ Army’s version which trains soldiers of the following: Simplicity in a tactical plan maintains simple concept and execution where failure points are avoided. Direct tactics can make other people understand fully their actions and the part of others. This will aid them in contributing to the success of a maneuver. Surprise will keep the enemy wondering and can be employed using subtle appearance in urban self-defense, stealth and deception in battlefield, or any daring action which is least expected by the enemy camp. Speed is doing as fast as possible whatever is needed and be ready for the next long before the enemy has time to react on the first. Security considers safety at all times with its rear and flanks to keep the enemy from doing what the combatant wants to do to them. Violence of action will destroy the will of the enemy to fight (Curahee, 2008) The principle of military tactics also cover the main objective, which is a particular aim such as disengagement from an advancing enemy or maintaining movement through protection of advancing troops. Principles also employ various practical tactics that include ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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