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Ectopic pregnancy - Essay Example

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Ectopic pregnancy is a gestational problem that is classified as a pathological problem that is seen in the initial term of pregnancy. According to Monga and Dobbs, “Ectopic pregnancy is defined as implantation of a conceptus outside the normal uterine cavity.” In the United Kingdom, 11,000 pregnant women present with ectopic pregnancy annually and 11 out of every 100,000 women die due to this problem. …
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Download file to see previous pages Ectopic pregnancy is an important gynecological disorder which has many underlying causes and it is a condition that can be diagnosed by different techniques. This pathology can be treated and therefore early diagnosis is important to prevent the fatalities that result due to this condition. Etiology: Ectopic pregnancy is led to by many causes. Invasion of the pelvis by infective microorganisms which include Chlamydia results in infection of the pelvis and this Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is classified as an underlying cause of ectopic pregnancy in approximately 40 percent of the cases. A pregnant woman who has a history of ectopic pregnancies has a higher risk of developing the same disorder again. Appendicitis, leiomyomas as well as endometriosis may result in the sticking together of the fallopian tubes. This also increases the susceptibility of ectopic pregnancy. Intrauterine devices that are used for contraception also result in a raised chance of developing ectopic pregnancies. An important characteristic that has been identified is that ectopic pregnancy may develop in a female who does not present with any prior history of risk factors and has normal tubal structures (Robbins et al 2005; Monga et al 2005). It has also been seen that women who resort to in vitro fertilization techniques for conceiving also have an increased risk of developing ectopic pregnancies. The improper development of the fallopian tubes by birth is also associated with ectopic pregnancy as it obstructs the movement of the fertilized ovum towards the uterine lining (Sher et al 2005). Site of Ectopic Pregnancy: The normal site for the attachment of the embryo is the endometrium of the uterus. An ectopic pregnancy ensues due to deviation of the embryo from its normal place of attachment and the attachment occurs in abnormal locations. These locations include the fallopian tubes where 95 percent of the ectopic pregnancies occur. Seventy four percent of the tubal pregnancies are found in the ampulla. Three percent of the ectopic pregnancies may occur in the ovary whereas one percent may be present in the cavity of the peritoneum. The remaining one percent may be seen in the cervix or on the scar tissue that may have formed following a caesarean section (Monga et al 2011; Smeltzer et al 2009). Signs and Symptoms: The patient may present with alteration in the normal menstrual cycle and complain of the postponement of the period from the normal date by approximately 2 weeks. She may complain of the passage of a small amount of blood after the time period of these two weeks. These symptoms explain of the presence of ectopic pregnancy. The patient may experience pain in the abdomen relative to the sight of implantation. The pain may be mild initially but may progress to become severe with time. This may be accompanied by abnormal bleeding which varies from the normal menstrual cycle. The patient may be lethargic and complain of fainting episodes. The patient may also complain of blood discharge from the vagina which would be dark red in color suggestive of the fact that the blood is not fresh. The patient may present with pain in the iliac fossa. In patients who may have presence of ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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