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Majority of the digestion processes occur in the small intestines wherein starches and glycogens will be broken down to sugars, proteins into amino acids and triglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol. The resulting products will then have to go through the intestinal mucosa’s cells before it can be circulated in the blood found in the primary vessels…
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Enzymes are very essential to food digestion. Salivary glands, epithelial cells of the duodenum and duodenum are essential aids in the secretion of some of these enzymes, as well as the pancreas. Pancreatic juice will travel through a passage provided by tiny ducts running from the pancreas to the small intestine. By the time food reaches the small intestine, some the food would have already been partly digested. Starches and glycogens would have been broken down by salivary amylase, but only part of their bonds, which entails that most of the starches and glycogens will still remain undigested but enough to produce disaccharide maltose. Once it reaches the small intestine, pancreatic amylase will break down these carbohydrates into maltose. Disaccharide enzymes will break down sucrose, maltose and lactose into various forms of monosaccharides. Basically, all lipid digestions occur in the small intestine. Due to their solubility in water, these lipids will have to enter the small intestine in the forms of globules. ... When looked at closely, fingerlike villus or small hairs responsible for extracting nutrients lines the plicae circulars. The villus is full of capillaries which surrounds lacteal, which is a specialized lymphatic vessel. The villi aid the intestines in the transport of food along the digestive pathway, as well as increasing the amount of surface area available for nutrient absorption.2 Villus lacteals, also known as the lymph capillaries, will then collect the absorbed chylomicrons before they are distributed to the rest of the body through the fluids of the lymph. Villus is also responsible for absorbing carbohydrates prior to entering the capillaries. Absorption of digested molecules of fat, which also occurs in the small intestine, will go into the epithelial cells of the villi. These fats will be formed into bundles known as the chylomicrons passing into the lacteal. Chylocmicrons will be carried by lymphs away from each individual villus. In addition to that, the digestion of protein is also completely processed in the small intestine. 3 Proteins will initially be broken down into peptides before being broken down into amino acids before the villi absorbs them, and then pass through to the capillaries. The presence of enzymes is also present on the surface. Capillaries of the villi will collect the amino acids and simple sugars then be transferred into the blood stream. Due to the functions of the intestines in nutrient extraction, and enabling the body’s taking up of water and electrolytes, the body is enabled to maintain regular bodily systems. All elements absorbed are done so in a network of processes distributed all over the body through the
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