Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is the acute presentation of coronary artery disease (CAD) which is manifested as unstable angina (UA), ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non- ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) (Noble, 2011). Nearly 1.5 million…
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tients with ACS is quick and accurate, risk stratification is done and management is commenced as early as possible to achieve good outcomes in the short and long turn (Housholder-Hughes, 2011). The role of nurses in the management of ACS is crucial in all aspects, be it diagnosis and assessment, triage, pharmacotherapy, perioperative management, critical care, postoperative care, discharge and rehabilitation. All nurses should have evidence based knowledge so that they can make informed decisions in the management of an ACS patient.
This review aims to describe the pathophysiology, nursing diagnoses and assessment, and nursing interventions of acute coronary syndrome. Current research and articles relevant to the aforementioned topics were reviewed and analyzed in order to provide a base for evidence based practice. The literature was retrieved by performing a MEDLINE and Google/Google Scholar search on the internet combined with a manual search for journals and books pertaining to the above mentioned topics. The keywords and their combinations that were used were acute coronary syndrome, nurse, nurse practitioner, ACS, pathophysiology, diagnosis, pharmacotherapy, unstable angina, STEMI, NSTEMI, myocardial infarction, MI, management, nursing assessment, and nursing interventions.
Although, the articles identifying assessment, interventions, and their impact on the management of ACS specifically in the context of nursing are few, the guidelines targeting healthcare practitioners in general have been adapted for nurses by most authors in their recommendations.
According to Hansson (2005), deposition of atherosclerotic plaques in walls and lumens of arteries (atherosclerosis) is an inflammatory process resulting from an interaction of immune and metabolic risk factors. Acute coronary syndromes occur when reduced blood flow causes sudden myocardial ischemia. This happens when a thrombus is formed on the surface of the atherosclerotic plaque as a result of plaque
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(“Acute coronary syndrome Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words”, n.d.)
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(Acute Coronary Syndrome Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words)
“Acute Coronary Syndrome Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/nursing/1599011-acute-coronary-syndrome.
A 29-year-old female patient was admitted to the internal medicine department with epigastric pain, continuous colic, nausea, and vomiting. The ECG demonstrated an old anterior wall myocardial infarction. The serum creatine phosphokinase (CK) and cardiac troponin T (TnT) levels were normal.
These factors are; age, gender, positive family history of MI, high blood pressure, obesity, high levels of cholesterol, lack of physical activity, diabetes, stress, hypertension, increased serum triglycerides, excessive intake of saturated fats, salt and carbohydrates.
ACS is characterized by chest pain as its main symptom. An ACG of patients with chest pain leads to categorization of the ACS as either ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) or Non ST-Elevation Myocardium Infarction (NSTEMI). In the management of Acute Coronary Syndrome such as NSTEMI, health care professionals have the responsibility of providing patient centered care (Sami and Willerson, 2010, p.
Heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States with an estimated cost of approximate¬ly $142.5 billion just in 2006, but certainly not all people who arrive in every ED with the complaint of chest pain are experiencing heart disease (Miranda & Crown 2009).
Firstly data collection has to be carried out which enables the physician to gain insight on the disease of the patient. Judging by the status in which the patient came to the hospital which was anxious and unsteady, the physician or nurse performing the clinical assessment must first calm the patient down the patient, ensuring that he is not under pressure
In the modern day scenario, chest pain and other related symptoms might signify ‘Acute Myocardial Infraction’ (AMI). This syndrome is highly associated with heart attack and atherosclerosis, a disease which has a negative impact on blood cell.
With rapid globalization, in many parts of the world, this is increasingly becoming the typical picture, and this disease is the most prevalent serious disease in elderly individuals of the developed Western nations. Therefore, in this context, it would be worthwhile to examine how this disease develops and how it manifests itself.
shown that these factors often conspire with the internal genetic mutations thus resulting into the destabilization of the appropriate checks and balances necessary for normal growth and functioning of body organs and organ systems. While doctors professionally explain why
He felt it when he was resting and watching TV in the evening with a limitation of the daily activity. I immediately suspected that it was an acute coronary syndrome. The wife indicated that Mr. Ali had complained of nausea when they were in the house.
(Dugdale, 2012). Some of the other names given to Unstable Angina include: “Accelerating angina; New-onset angina; Angina - unstable; Progressive angina” (Dugdale, Unstable angina, 2014)
Unstable angina does not follow any patterns. It may happen more frequently
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