Material Appropriate to Pathophysiology - Term Paper Example

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Material Appropriate to Pathophysiology Pathophysiology Pathophysiology is defined as the study of physiologic or functional changes in the body that come from disease processes. The subject is based on the knowledge of the normal function and structure of the human body…
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Material Appropriate to Pathophysiology
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Download file to see previous pages As stated before, pathophysiology necessitates the use of knowledge of basic physiology and anatomy, and it based on the loss or change in the normal functioning and structure of the body. Majority of the disorders affecting a certain organ or system display common symptoms and signs that are directly related to the organ’s normal function and structure (Dyer and Gould 2). Shock Shock is a common term used to define the state of poor perfusion of oxygen-rich blood into the tissues. The poor perfusion happens if one of the three major elements of circulatory system are compromised, that is, the capability of the heart to pump blood into circulation, the vascular system integrity, and the volume of blood in the circulatory system. A chain of events will start if the condition is not treated, and it may be fatal. The three elements mentioned can be affected resulting in impaired delivery of oxygen-rich blood and a decrease in blood pressure (Myers, Neighbors, and Tannehill-Jones 92). Shock is classified into four classes, which include hypovolemic shock, cardiogenic shock, vasogenic shock, and septic shock. Hypovolemic shock is as a result of loss of plasma or loss of blood from the circulating blood. In patients with burns, the inflammatory reaction results into edema with shift of protein and fluid from blood into the neighboring tissues, and constant loss from burn wound region because of skin loss. Peritonitis causes hypovolemia when inflammation and infection in the peritoneal membrane lead to fluid shift from the blood into a different compartment. Dehydration can minimize circulating blood pressure and blood volume. Cardiogenic shock is linked with cardiac impairments such as arrhythmias or left ventricle acute infarction. Obstructive shock (a subcategory of cardiogenic shock) is caused by pulmonary embolus or cardiac tamponade that blocks or obstructs blood flow through the heart (Dyer and Gould 317). Vasogenic shock (or distributive shock) causes can be classified in a variety of ways such as vasogenic (neurogenic) shock and anaphylactic shock. Neurogenic shock develops from fear, drugs, pain, or the loss of SNS (sympathetic nervous system) stimuli resulting from spinal cord injury. This type of shock can also be caused by metabolic dysfunction like insulin shock, severe acidosis, and hypoglycemia. Anaphylactic shock develops from rapid general vasolidation because of the large amounts of histamine released in severe allergic reactions. Septic shock can occur in individuals with severe infections, especially infections with gram-negative endotoxins, such as Pseudomonas, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli (Dyer and Gould 317). Shock state is defined as a syndrome instigated by acute systemic hypoperfusion that result in vital organ dysfunction and tissue hypoxia. All types of shocks are characterized by insufficient perfusion to fulfill the tissues’ metabolic demands. End organs do not get adequate blood flow, therefore, initiating cellular hypoxia, and eventual organ damage. This phenomenon is well defined by the multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome. Organs of vital importance include the kidneys, heart, and the brain. A decrease in higher cortical function shows diminished perfusion of the brain. This leads to changed mental status, which ranges from agitation and confusion to flaccid coma. The heart plays a significant role in circulating shock. Cardiac dysfunction is worsened by depressed coronary perfusion and global perfusion. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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