Physiology and Pharmacology of Hypertension Cardiovascular diseases are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in the world responsible for more than third of global causes of death and hypertension has important role in developing cardiovascular diseases, ischemic disease of the heart and heart and kidney failure…
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2005) (Mackay and Mensah 2004) (WHO 2002). It is found that treating hypertension had lead to 40 percents reduction of cerebral stroke and about 15 percents reduction of acute myocardial infarction (WHO 2002) (Colins et al. 1990). What is interesting data obtained globally in the world found that about 62 percents of cerebral insults and about 50 percents of ischemic heart morbidity can be attributed to sub-optimal regulated blood pressure (systolic pressure above 115 mmHg). This only means that blood pressure should be monitored more closely by trained and experienced physicians. However World health organization found that globally the ability to treat hypertension is variable with huge difference between the countries. In this survey conducted on 167 countries by the World health organization in 67 percents of them there was no national anti-hypertension program, physicians were not trained to manage hypertension in 45 percents of the countries, antihypertensive drugs were not available in 25 percents, basic equipment was not available in 8 percents etc. (Alwan et al. 2001). Hypertension is believed to be a disease of the modern society, but the prevalence of hypertension in developing countries, especially in the urban areas is now similar to the prevalence in western countries (Vorster 2002). This can be attributed to the modern day of life that is accepted in the developing countries because it is found that primitive people around the world have no hypertension and their blood pressure doesn’t elevate with age (Carvalho et al 1989). This is important because we can see that hypertension is a modifiable factor that is dependent on the lifestyle of the person and along with other modifiable factors like obesity, stress, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, alcohol intake, vitamin D deficiency and other factors. Hypertension however is the most important modifiable factor that can significantly influence the well being of the general population worldwide (Kyrou et al. 2006) (Wofford and Hall 2004). Hypertension is defined as elevated systolic or diastolic pressure above the normal reference values. Normal blood pressure is systolic blood pressure lower that 120 mmHg and diastolic pressure lower that 80 mmHg The systolic pressure is recognized as normal in population above age 50 if it is not greater than 140 mmHg and systolic not greater than 90 mmHg. (Chobanian et al. 2003). There are two main types of hypertension primary and secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is responsible for only 5 percents of the incidence of hypertension worldwide (Chiong et al 2008). It is a condition where the elevated blood pressure is a result of some other morbidity within the organism that is treatable or non treatable and is the primary factor for elevated blood pressure. It is very important to distinguish between these two types because the treatment is much different. Secondary hypertension can be caused by variety of condition like disease in endocrine system like Cushing’s disease where the adrenal glands produce excess cortisol (Dodt et al. 2009). Other condition that can lead to secondary hypertension is hyperthyroidism, where in order to treat the hypertension we will also need to treat the primary disease that is causing the elevated bloo
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Normal levels of BP defined by Joint National Committee 7 (JNC 7) state values of 120 mm of Hg and 80 mm of Hg for systolic and diastolic respectively (Chobanian et al. 2003). The American Heart Association (AHA) defines hypertension as systolic and diastolic BP higher than 140 and 90 mm of Hg respectively (Carretero & Oparil 2000).
DEFINITION ESSAY: PHARMACOLOGY SUBMITTED BY: SUBMITTED TO: DATE OF SUBMISSION: INSTITUTE: Pharmacology is one of the multiple fields of study that fall under the broad umbrella of medicine. Other terms, closely related to pharmacology include pharmacy, pharmacist and pharmaceutical.
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Hypertension is a symptomless condition, though the below could indirectly point towards the condition: a. Blood spots observed in the eyes b. Dizziness c. Facial flushing (www.heart.org) B. The Main Causes of Hypertension The principle causes include genetics and lifestyle (www.heart.org).
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Hypertension cases are grouped into two: primary hypertension and secondary
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