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Pharmacology - Essay Example

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Pharmacology Name: Institution: Course: Tutor: Date: Activity 1 Foreachof the body systemslisteddescribe the consequence of activation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, then describe a clinical symptom or condition that as a paramedic you may observe in someone with a highly activatedPARASYMPATHETIC nervous system…
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Pharmacology
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Download file to see previous pages 87) Relaxes the muscles of the iris so that more light can reach the pupil for a clearer view (Shiota and Kalat, 2012, p. 87) Blurred images Lungs Constriction of airway smooth muscles Increased mucous glad secretion Increased vascular permeability Some causes vasodilation Increases mucociliary activities (Shiota and Kalat, 2012, p. 86) Increased mucus production Enhanced mucociliary clearance Blockage of the airway and dryness of the of the epithelium Stomach Stimulates secretion of digestive enzymes Stimulates peristalsis in the stomach Facilitate storage of body energy in the form of fats Stimulate the excretion of wastes (Shiota and Kalat, 2012, p. 86) Produce a tendency to vomit Vomiting of undigested food (2 marks) (2 marks) (2 marks) Activity 2 For each drug,identify ONE paramedic indication,then in the subsequent columns list the molecular target, target tissue, type of interaction (i.e. agonist / antagonist / allosteric modulator / inhibitor) and briefly explain how the interaction of the drugwith the molecular targetaccounts forthe observed therapeutic effect for theparamedic indication identified in the first column.(24 marks) Drug Paramedic Indication Molecular Target Target Tissue Type of interaction Mechanism of Therapeutic Effect e.g. Salbutamol Acute asthma ?2-adrenoreceptor Lungs Agonist Activation of ?2 adrenoceptors in the lung causes relaxation of the bronchiole smooth muscle, bronchodilation and increased airflow. Adrenaline Allergic reaction Alpha2, Beta and Beta 2 epinephrine Skin Antagonist When it is introduced o the body, it bind the alpha subunit of for GTP molecule and the G-protein breaks the beta particle from the gamma subunit and all the parts remain membrane bound (Foye, Lemke and Williams, 2008, p. 87). Fentanyl Sedation and acute pain Opioid receptors Central nervous systems Agonist It produces effects by binding the opioid receptors so that the patient stimulate the mind through the effects of the drug (Bryant and Knights, 2010, p. 123) Ondansetron Nausea and Vomiting 5-HT3 Peripheral and central nervous system Antagonist The drug influence the 5-HT3 receptors that reduces the action of the vagus nerve that causes vomiting in a patient Midazolam Sedation and Gamma receptors Central Nervous system Agonist It accomplishes its functions on the body by enhancing the action of inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-amino butyric acid that produces a depressant effect on the individual who uses them. Ipratropium Severe life-threatening bronchospasm Beta Lungs Antagonist The drug is an antimuscarinic agent that promote bronchodilation by inhibiting chlorinergic bronchomotor tone (Lyons, 2011, p. 97) Adenosine Irregular purse rate beta Cardiac muscle Antagonist It influences the regular contraction and relaxation of cardiac muscles to achieve regular purse rate Naloxone Respiratory depression Beta Central nervous system Antagonist Naloxone competes for similar receptor sites with opiods so that it can reduce or reverse the effects of the opiods in the body of a person (Shiota and Kalat, 2012, p. 76) Aspirin Acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema Beta molecules Blood Antagonist It reacts with the body in such a way that a person reacts the clot that help reduce clotting of blood enabling the free flow of blood (Lyons, 2011, p. 98) ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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