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Psychological disorders and treament - Essay Example

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Topic: Psychological Disorders and Treatment Research in Schizophrenia has proceeded over a hundred years of developments in psychology and psychiatry, from the early 20th century when Schizophrenia was first known as dementia-praecox. While research in Schizophrenia has not established a definitive cause and cure for the disease, the leading hypothesis is based on an overabundance of dopamine in the brain, and both typical and atypical anti-psychotic medications can be used in the treatment of the disease…
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Psychological disorders and treament

Download file to see previous pages... With this, the schizophrenic patient will be expected to display two or more of the characteristics: Delusions Hallucinations Disorganized speech Grossly disorganized behavior Negative symptoms 3. The duration of the experience for diagnosis is generally: 1 month of characteristic symptoms With 6 months of social/occupational dysfunction 4. The exclusion criteria are: Schizoaffective mood disorders Direct consequence of substance use or general medical condition Pervasive developmental disorders These diagnostic guidelines published in "Schizophrenia" by Steven R. Hirsch & Daniel Roy Weinberger (2003, Pages 10-11) can help in determining whether or not a patient has the symptoms of Schizophrenia, but they do not point to a clear cause for the disease. Research in Schizophrenia has developed around the Dopamine hypothesis, due to the effectiveness of Dopamine receptor blocking medications in the treatment of the disease historically. These are classified into typical anti-psychotics (Thorazine, Haldol) and atypical anti-psychotics (Aripiprazole/Abilify, Olanzapine/Zyprexa, Seroquel/Quetiapine, etc.). Atypical anti-psychotics may be more effective and have a significantly reduced occurrence of side effects like Tardive Dyskinesia, but may still lead to substantial weight gain in patients. There is some controversy over the ethicality of the medications as administrated, but findings of effectiveness in typical anti-psychotic medications in the treatment of Schizophrenia led to the belief that Dopamine receptor blocking medications did assist in the alleviation of symptoms in patients and general improvement. (Lieberman, 2005) From this the latest atypical anti-psychotics seek to build upon Dopamine receptor blocking to extend to other neuro-chemical receptors in the brain, such as 5-HT2, Glutamate, or Serotonin. A receptor blocking medication of an atypical anti-psychotic may be prescribed to be taken at night, and a Serotonin receptor blocking agent like Prozac or Zoloft taken in the morning. This may be considered the most viable treatment for chronic patients suffering schizophrenic symptoms. Nevertheless, not all researchers are convinced that the Dopamine hypothesis illustrates the cause of schizophrenia, and there is a historical debate between the psychogenic origin of the disease, as advocated by Jung and others, and the genetic or neuro-chemical hypotheses. Some have suggested, like Bateson, that a “double bind” situation in the family or society could be the cause of the disease as an outgrowth of neurosis. (Guillaume, 2011) The social defeat hypothesis analyzes the prevalence of Schizophrenia among the poor, suggesting that there may be socio-economic issues relating to stress, diet, and learned patterns of defeat that cause Schizophrenia. (Selten & Cantor-Graae, 2005) However, it is also generally supposed that the schizophrenic patients have a genetic propensity to the disease that is heightened when stress, traumatic events, abuse, or social problems overwhelm the individual and lead to an onset of the disease. The orthomolecular approach has targeted vitamin therapies as a “cure” to Schizophrenia popularly, but these are largely not replicable in scientific clinical studies. Vitamins ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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