If animals are no longer killed for food, this raises another key moral question concerning duty, essentially the duty of responsibility. Domesticated animals may be ill equipped with the skills to return to the wild. …
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’1 In examining theories by Singer, McMahan, Warnock, Spira and Benson regarding the eating of non-human animals, consideration will also be given to the impact this may have on moral arguments regarding ‘duty’ in vivisection, and industries such as cosmetics, detergents and pharmaceuticals. Peter Singer believes chimpanzees and apes, should be granted ‘the right to life, to liberty and to protection from torture,’2 because they have autonomy like humans. Singer’s term ‘speciesists’ is used for people who ‘regard human beings as intrinsically more valuable than members of other species.’3 Singer purports to believe in equality between species, but Benson argues this is false ‘because of the relationships with other individuals which are inseparable from belonging to the same species.’4 Singer contradictiously suggests that chimps and apes have a greater level of consiousness, compared to other non-human animals. In an article and the book Ethics into Action, Singer discusses Henry Spira who campaigned to reduce animal suffering related to the Draize and LD50 tests. Spira’s advertising campaign was criticized for using a Beagle to gain an emotive response; it was suggested if a rodent appeared in the advert people would not have been so outraged. Spira pointed to the importance of ‘not how popular is an animal, but can it tell the difference between pain and pleasure?’5 Singer discusses Kant’s work and states that we ‘find moral worth only when duty is done for duty’s sake.’6 What is meant by this relates to the advertising, in that if people do their duty out of sympathy or shame, they wouldn’t be doing their duty for the sake of believing and feeling it to be true. Gary L. Francione criticises Peter Singer’s work, suggesting that whilst it contains an element of reform for animal-welfare, it ‘makes people feel better about animal uses, but does not actually achieve its proper aim of protecting animals.’7 Francione argues for full abolition of animal use, claiming that because animals are sentient beings this should enable them to have full moral and legal rights. Professor of Philosophy, Jeff McMahan, discusses animals raised in good conditions, then killed humanely, for human consumption and terms this ‘benign carnivorism.’8 McMahan states the main premise of benign carnivorism’s moral philosophical argument, is that it’s preferable animals live in a contented manner, with no suffering (up until their humane death), than to not have existed at all. Mary Warnock claims animals ‘should be used for the sake of human society,’9 she lists activities such as horse riding; sledging; the food and clothing they provide. This argument is favourable to those wishing to consume meat, though McMahan points out the illogical flaw that: ‘there are no individuals who never exist.’10 A comparative sense of ‘well-being’ is made between non-human animals and humans. Whilst non-human animals can appear to show emotion; other aspects of human life such as success, artistic endeavours, wisdom, meaningful connections to others, the ability to think rationally and appreciation of beauty aren’t always as easy to perceive in non-human animals. McMahan suggests that non-human animals lack a self-awareness for the future, claiming that they ‘do not…have desires or intentions or ambitions…that would be frustrated by death,’11 thus making it easier to justify killing them. McMahan’s argument makes interesting comparison to humans but his key premise throughout is that animals do not have the same rights as humans they have lesser rights; humans constantly place a higher value on human life. If non-human animals were seen to have a
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The argument for equality among beings really isn't one for intelligence, moral capacity, physical strength or other criteria which cannot possibly be equal among species. It isn't even equal among the beings of the human group. There are many people who may be considered human only by virtue of having been born from human parents; certainly nothing else qualifies them.
The author states that postmaterialism also involves the changes brought about in the realm of human-nonhuman relations. Postmaterialism mainly deals with the value changes in the society. Scarcity and socialisation are the basic themes which Inglehart follows in defining the attitude change towards animal rights.
In Descartes' view, the urge to reason with everyone and almost at everything and the verbal communication are the characteristics that set humans separately from all other kinds. Using the belief of parsimony, wherein one always necessarily begins with the unpretentious details of pragmatic events, Descartes reasons that the perceived actions of all nonhuman living beings can be explained without crediting minds and understanding.
The premise of this paper is to delve into the consequences of these differences. The paper will study moral behaviour, human uniqueness, and consciousness or lack of consciousness. The first consequence of the difference between humans and animals is human uniqueness (Levinas, 2004 p48).
Psychologists have taken great focus on the subject by evaluating the essence of morality and investigating whether animals have the capacity to practice morality demeanor and elucidates moral qualities like, cooperation, reciprocity along with fairness and that can be observed in social animals.
Name Class Instructor Date Indirect Theories and Moral Equality Theories on Kindness to Non-Human Animals According to Immanuel Kant, humans have duties to be kind to animals because these “duties towards animals…are indirect duties towards mankind” ( 64 ).
Theory among Animals and Humans
Attachment is the long term psychological connection between a human being or animal with another of its kind, which binds them physically and withstands through time. This is characterised by the emotional relationship between a mother and its infant.
It should be remembered that the history of cloning is a tedious and tiresome journey with ingenious methods applied. At the Roslyn Institute the successfully cloned a lamb but took 277 tries to finally clone it. Scientists working on the project knew all through their work in progress that once successful Cloning can be a very useful tool if used under the right conditions.
Till the time of Watson, a famous psychologist, psychology was basically only based on the learning of what happens in one’s mind. People told the psychologists what was going on in their minds, the psychologists made notes of what they
He says, “The souls that try to survive and be happy against the odds, against the prejudices and the concrete jungle” (Torres, 2011). In this excerpt, he is trying to envision his life on the way it would one-day end. The narrator is a resilient character emotionally.
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