Free

What Is Meant By Smart Power And How Does Its Application By The Obama Administration Differ From The Use Of Hard Power By The Bush Administration - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
The terms “hard power” and “smart power” are often used to describe the difference between the Bush Administration and the Obama Administration in foreign policy.
Hard power is the use of forceful tactics such as military actions or economic sanctions. …
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.3% of users find it useful
What Is Meant By Smart Power And How Does Its Application By The Obama Administration Differ From The Use Of Hard Power By The Bush Administration
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "What Is Meant By Smart Power And How Does Its Application By The Obama Administration Differ From The Use Of Hard Power By The Bush Administration"

What is meant by “smart power” and how does its application by the Obama Administration differ from the use of “hard power” by the Bush Administration. The terms “hard power” and “smart power” are often used to describe the difference between the Bush Administration and the Obama Administration in foreign policy. These terms are descriptions of the way that American governments deal with other states, especially those states which do not agree with American views. Hard power is the use of forceful tactics such as military actions or economic sanctions. It shows how strong America is, and imposes American views on other people. If the other countries involved are weak, then this can be very effective and President Bush used this kind of approach at the beginning of his first term of office. The invasion of Iraq is a classic example of hard power at work. This tough line was also an important part of President Bush’s election campaign in 2004: “the Bush administration achieved a greater advantage over Democrats in general and Senator John Kerry in particular on this issue than on any other in the 2004 presidential race.” (Campbell and O’Hanlon: 2006, p. 119) After the 9/11 attack on New York, it was possible to present hard power as a defence tool, not necessarily an act of aggression. This made it more acceptable to the American public. Sometimes, however, the opposite of hard power, i.e. soft power is a better approach. People know that America is strong, but they might be more impressed by gentle approaches like aid and support, with diplomatic summits and exchanges of views. America’s culture and image are also aspects of soft power. This encourages partnership in some cases, and it can work when both sides want to change things in a similar way. Unfortunately, this is not often used, because it can seem like weakness. When President Obama came to power there was a desire to make big changes. America was trapped in long military campaigns in the Middle East and in Africa which seemed to be going nowhere. America was getting a bad reputation and the costs of these campaigns was growing and growing all the time. It was decided the policy of using violence to respond to violence was not the best way. The country needed more choices, more flexibility, and a new approach that would work better. A commission was set up to find such a way and they came up with the concept of “smart power” in 2007. The concept of “smart power” is a combination of both soft and hard power methods. They wanted to make sure that their new policy should be seen as something just as effective: “There is nothing weak about this approach. It is pragmatic, optimistic, and quite frankly, American.” (Armitage and Nye: 2007, p. 4) Hillary Clinton’s mission to Congo in 2010 aimed to change the culture of rape there and this can be seen as an example of “smart power”: “The tools she favors fall into a category known in Beltway circles as “smart power” – military intervention that focuses on training, construction, and humanitarian work while taking pains to avoid violence.” (Axe: 2010, p. 1) This contrasts with the armed invasions and air attacks that the Bush Administration used: “Obama is no pacifist, but non-military interventions like diplomacy and sanctions are more his style.” (Axe: 2010, p. 1) The two terms are very different and suggest quite different approaches but in fact it could be said that Obama’s “smart power” are based on Bush’s experience. When President Bush failed to achieve his objectives in military ways he searched for other possibilities. “Many of Obama’s smart power initiatives are expanded versions of programs that began during Bush’s second term. But while Bush may have opened the door to smart power, Obama gave it a seat near the head of the table.” (Axe: 2010, p. 1) Some critics see examples of smart power much earlier in history, for example Dickinson reports “T.E. Lawrence, or Lawrence of Arabia, describing a successful insurgency in his “27 Articles” cites both the need for a moral basis on the ground and the physical ability to inflict damage.” The truth is, both the Bush and Obama governments need both hard and soft types of power, and the term “smart power” is just a new way of saying this. References Armitage, R.L. and Nye, J.S. JR. 2007. “CSIS Commision on Smart Power: A smarter, more secure America.” New York: Center for Strategic and International Studies. Available online at: http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/071106_csissmartpowerreport.pdf Axe, D. November 29, 2010. “The Limits of Smart Power.” The American Prospect. Available online at: http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?article=the_limits_of_smart_power Campbell, K. and O’Hanlon, M. 2006. Hard Power: The New Politics of National Security. Cambridge, MA: Basic Books. Dickinson, E. (May/June 2010) “Brainier Brawn.” Foreign Policy. Available online at: http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/04/26/brainier_brawn Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“What Is Meant By Smart Power And How Does Its Application By The Obama Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1405657-what-is-meant-by-smart-power-and-how-does-its-application-by-the-obama-administration-differ-from-the-use-of-hard-power-by-the-bush-administration
(What Is Meant By Smart Power And How Does Its Application By The Obama Essay)
https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1405657-what-is-meant-by-smart-power-and-how-does-its-application-by-the-obama-administration-differ-from-the-use-of-hard-power-by-the-bush-administration.
“What Is Meant By Smart Power And How Does Its Application By The Obama Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/environmental-studies/1405657-what-is-meant-by-smart-power-and-how-does-its-application-by-the-obama-administration-differ-from-the-use-of-hard-power-by-the-bush-administration.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF What Is Meant By Smart Power And How Does Its Application By The Obama Administration Differ From The Use Of Hard Power By The Bush Administration

A smart Uninterruptible Power Supply

...?A Smart UPS An Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is used to protect electronics in case of power surges and blackouts so that the attached devices get an unremitting supply of power. A smart UPS is simple and cost-effective. A bigger battery size adds to its smartness as it allows greater backup time by keeping on supplying conditioned power stored in its batteries for longer periods. So, a smart UPS is one which has an extended battery life or battery capacity and draws less power or percentage load when it is on charging. A single...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Public Administration Theory application

...?Running header: OHIO HIGH SCHOOLS AND THE NEED FOR CHANGE Ohio High Schools and the need for change; public administration and the implementation oforganizational theory in Cleveland March 10, 2011 Ohio High Schools and the need for change Abstract Public administration of public schools is a necessary approach and the subject of much debate. What is the most efficient way to provide education for students and still do so within the desired economic and societal requirements? Organizational theory, specifically symbolic interaction coupled with service learning, is one applicable approach to the public education system as a whole and specifically that within the state of Ohio. Included...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Corruption under the Obama Administration

...?Corruption under the Obama Administration The United s prides itself as the bastion and defender of democracy: rule of the people, by the people, and for the people. For America to preserve her image and for democracy to be real and sustainable in America, corruption must not be allowed to flourish. The presidency of Barack Obama is a testimony of America as a democracy. Obama is the first African American to become president. Today America cannot be criticized as a country in which only the Caucasian Americans rule. The Obama presidency symbolizes that the United States is a democracy that does not look into the racial divides and that in America, people have not only economic opportunities but also political opportunities. His... ...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Administration

...from around the world are working together to achieve a common goal. Even they were being raised with different cultures and beliefs, their mutual interests bind them to do business together. To think about all this happenings, the role of the administration is quiet hard, isn't it Back in the 90's, businesses conducted communication through the use of fax machines or telephones. This time, two individuals from two countries can do a conversation without any communication barriers-face to face. However, consequent to this are the technical, cultural and linguistic challenges of globalizations hence managers have to adjust in the midst of these diversities. Technically,...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

War on Terrorism under the Bush administration

...War on Terrorism Question The three foreign policy goals of political and economic freedom, peaceful inter relations, and respect for human dignity have not been realized under the Bush administration. Our political freedom has been hampered by the politics of fear and the ability of both parties to exploit the issue of terrorism for their own political gain. The economic cost of the war has necessitated that the US postpone and cancel the implementation of needed social programs such as health care and social security reform. Rather than giving the citizens greater freedom, the war on terror has enslaved the populous. The war on terror has also damaged our relations with the...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

The Current Obama Administration

...side is most likely doing whatever it can to get ahead, the Obama Administration should similarly use tactics to do what it must in order to maintain power. This includes, but is not limited to, getting to the ends by almost any means necessary, within reason. "Mr. Alinsky observes that 'any effective means is automatically judged by the opposition as being unethical.'"12 After all, Republicans do this all the time. Democrats and the Obama White House would do well to take a page from the Republican playbook and try to use whatever effective means it can in order to accomplish its goals. This means that the...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Obama Administration Budget

...Bush began a string of expensive finan­cial bailouts. President Obama is accelerating that course. - President Bush made a Medicare drug entitle­ment that will outlay an estimated $800 billion in its first decade. President Obama has proposed a $634 billion down payment on a new govern­ment health care fund. - President Bush augmented federal education spending 58 percent faster than inflation. Presi­dent Obama would double it. - President Bush became the first President to spend 3 percent of GDP on federal antipoverty programs. President Obama has already in­creased this spending by 20...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Bonnville Power Administration

...Bonnville Power Administration BPA is in the utility catering business so in a way they are in business of public service. For that they have to maintain well trained and skilled work force and that require a lot of commitment on part of BPA. At BPA they help people develop career by providing extensive training support and career options. For the last almost 70 years they are promiting the philosophy of teamwork to achieve excellence at their different locations like Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana. Jobs It will be interesting to see what kind of the jobs BPA offer right from the inception stage. Student Temporary Employment Program (STEP) Here students can work part time and full time during the vacation. It provides... an...
2 Pages(500 words)Coursework

Changes in National Security Policy with Iran in the Bush and Obama Administration

...Changes in National Security Policy with Iran in the Bush and Obama Administrations By Type Type [Customer Type Your Instructor Name] March 23, 2011 Contents Objective 3 Purpose Statement 3 Introduction 4 Main features of the U.S. policy for Iran under George W. Bush 5 The ‘think tanks’ of the US and their Policy recommendations 7 The U.S. policy for Iran under Barack Obama 7 Promoting a responsible Iran 8 Analysis – Similarities and Differences 9 The case of Iran 11 Conclusion 13 Bibliography 14 Objective National Security policy or strategy is prepared by the US government which identifies and...
15 Pages(3750 words)Research Paper

In a world of shifting global power, how important are soft, hard and smart power

...worked in the past nor how it continues to work within the current times. One does not need to look hard in order to see the way that hard power is exhibited within the current global system. For instance, when one considers the way in which key nations within the past decade have utilized hard power to influence the way in which other nations behave, it becomes clearly obvious that the utilization of hard power is far from having experienced its epoch at the end of the Cold War as some political scientists had previously stated. Moreover, in the current time, one can...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic What Is Meant By Smart Power And How Does Its Application By The Obama Administration Differ From The Use Of Hard Power By The Bush Administration for FREE!

Contact Us