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ts in insulin secretion, insulin action or both, which translates to long term damage and dysfunction of various organs of the body (Nayak and Roberts). Within the pancreas, the Islets of Langerhans are responsible for secretion of insulin, which acts to regulate of blood glucose levels. In persons with diabetes, normal insulin function is impaired where it can be produced in insufficient quantities or is produced defectively. This further classifies diabetes mellitus into Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 3-5% of all diabetes in the world and is more common in children and young adults but can occur at any age (International Diabetes Federation 6). Type 1 diabetes presents as an autoimmune disease where insulin producing cells within the pancreas are destroyed, and the patients are always dependent on insulin injections for survival. The destruction of Islets of Langerhans within the pancreas impair the ability to produce insulin adequately thus affecting the process of glucose regulation negatively. Such destruction may be facilitated by the presence of external factors such as viral infections, which may alter the orientation of the host immune system.
On the hand, Type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90% of all diabetes cases globally, occurring among the middle-aged and older people. In this condition, the body either does not make enough insulin or does not respond well as it ought to the insulin produced and can be controlled by keeping blood glucose levels within the range through diet and exercises. In this regard, Type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance, which implies that the body cannot effectively utilize the insulin produced no matter its quantity. As a result, glucose cannot be transported from the blood to the cells, which encourages excess blood glucose, which makes it difficult for the body to maintain normal glucose levels in the blood.
Obesity, which is associated with insulin resistance, has been described
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