The black Hawk War of 1865-1867 is one of the major historical events that Uncle Sam alludes to in the Comic narrative. This paper will try to explain the main issues that resulted from the Black Hawk War…
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Lyman states that the relationship between the Indians and the white settlers who were mostly Mormons was quite rough (12). Some of the southern Paiutes even converted to Mormonism. However, the Ute Indians had general hostilities with the Mormons and the settlers. During the Black Hawk War, Navajo Indians increased the hostilities by attacking Dixie ranches. Many Mormons and white settlers were killed in inhumane manner. The Indians were ruthless in their attacks. Winkler states that most of the white settlers armed themselves against the Indians and carried out revenge attacks without involving the US government. Indian villages were raided and razed down by church militias. The farms belonging to the Ute Indians were razed down leading to many deaths due to famine between 1866 and 1869. Winkler states that on 18 July 1865, Mormon militias killed tens of Native Americans including women and children (13). Furthermore, the Indians that were captured during cattle raids were exposed to extreme torture methods in order to reveal the place where other tribes were hiding. Lyman further states that Indian warriors captured white traders en route to parts of southern Utah killing them (7). The major causes of the black hawk war were pressure on Indian settlement populations, destruction of ecosystem and Indian subsistence leading to starvation. This was due to white Settlement expansion and latter day saints in open war with Native Americans. Peterson asserts that the major cause of the war was the pressure on Indian tribes in Utah (14). Since 1837, white settlers had been pushing native Indians from their homeland in the native reserve. South Utah was one of the major areas that were affected. The Ute and Navajo who used to plant corn for food were hugely affected as they lost their land to Mormon ranches. The Ute led by a young chief called black Hawk started to carry out attacks on the Mormon settlements in order to steal cattle for their food. Lyman, on the other hand states that Mormon militia due to suspicion attacked some Indian tribes that were seen to be friendly to the Mormons in central Utah (19). These include the Koosharen who were commonly known as the horseless Ute. During the black hawk war, there was an emergence of what was commonly referred to as the Frontier justice for those who were thought to have committed crimes, witch-hunts. Lack of federal soldier’s aid to help end the war was due to the inability to differentiate between friendly and enemy Indians. Reeve states that the system of justice in Utah was crucial as a cause of war. Reeve states that the white’s had formed a militia in order to protect their interests and deal with conduct amongst themselves administered the system. The justice system during the black hawk war led to white settlers to engage in excess in legal constraints. Indian women and children were also killed after being caught as captives. In addition to this, the legal authority was accused of excesses. However, the legal system would let these blatant forms of murder and human rights abuses unpunished. Winkler states that Indians chiefs had their own system of justice. In the case of Joseph and Robert Perry’s murder, Indian chiefs prosecuted the Navajos who had participated in the murder by punishing them (6). However, Winkler states th
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