Generally, the field of Mathematics, science and Physics was closed to women for a very long time. However there has been treamendous improvement in terms of participation and contributions of women to the field in the twentieth century…
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Lewis (2011) documents 10 women who have made contributions to the field of mathematics for as early as 355 AD. These women include Hypatia of Alexandria (370 – 415 AD), a Greek philosopher, astronomer, mathematician, Elena Cornaro Piscopia (1646-1684) an Italian mathematician, theologian and Composer, Maria Agnesi (1718-1799) an Italian claimed to be the first woman university of mathematics. Others include,Sophie Germain (1776-1830) a French mathematician, Mary Fairfax Somerville (1780-1872) a Scottish and British mathematician also known as "Queen of Nineteenth Century Science," Ada Lovelace (1815-1852) a whose the Ada computer language after, Charlotte Angas Scott(1848-1931) an English, American mathematician and educator, Sofia Kovalevskaya (1850-1891) a Russian mathematician, Alicia Stott (1860-1940) an English mathematician and Amalie Emmy Noether (1882-1935) a German, Jewish, American mathematician (Etzkowitz, Kemelgor and Uzzi 45-100). Notably there are a number of women who have participated and made considerable contridutions in the field of sciences as early as the medieval age. Trotula di Ruggiero was the chair at the Medical School of Salerno in the 11th century. She has been credited in influential texts in obstetrics and gynecology (Leigh 65-80). Dorotea Bucca was also the chair of philosophy and medicine at the University of Bologna from 1390. Other women physicians from Italy included Abella, Jacobina Felicie, Alessandra Giliani, Rebecca de Guarna, Margarita, Mercuriade, Constance Calenda, and Calrice di Durisio among others. The participation and contribution of these Italian women physician was attributed to the liberal approach of the Italian Universities. Other notable achievements by women in science and physics in the nineteenth century include Florence Nightingale credited in pioneering nursing as a discipline; she was also a pioneer in public health and a statistician. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson was the first British woman with medical 1865. In America it was Elizabeth Blackwell. Astronomical photography was also pioneered by Annie Scott Dill Maunder. In the 20th century women notables in science include Marie Curie a Nobel price winner in Physics in 1903 (physics), and chemistry in 1911. In 1939, Lise Meitner credited for pioneering nuclear fission. Margaret Fountaine has made significant contributions in botany and entomology (Leigh 65-80). An analysis of female Nobel Prize laureates’ shows out of the fourty one women who have won the prestigious award between 1901 and 2010, sixteen of them have been in the field physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine (Ruth 100-150). Despite the above success stories there are several challenges that have inhibited women from pursuing Sciences and Mathematics. They include stereotypes, cultural practices, social prejudices, preferences and tastes, family orientation, the church etc. For instance St Thomas Aquinas was of the view that women were incapable of holding positions of authority, some cultures discourage women from participation in fields and activities regarded to as manly, some prejudices that a female is a weaker sex thus cannot comprehend technical aspects of science, there are workplace discrimination based on gender etc. (Ruth 100-150). 2.0 Challenges, issues and opportunities The issues of underrepresentation by women in sciences start early. In the US, girls account for athird of the students opting for physics at the high-school level. Those who secure placement in computer
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Although some progressive parts of the world have been able to put this discrimination behind them over the passage of time, however, there still remain cultures and societies where the concept of women in the professional sphere is relatively new and developing, while there are also those societies where the concept of women in the professional spheres, or even the idea of them getting education, is unacceptable.
Women have made a lot of contributions to technology and science since time in memorial. However in some countries they have not yet been recognized. In the US, women’s involvement in science and technology in history is faced with a lot of debate. The debate is about their intellectual capacities as well as their roles compared to those of men.
The role of women in careers which revolve around math, science and engineering has been a central concern of democratic societies around the world as those societies have attempted to extend social and economic equality. Because math, science, and engineering careers are among the most powerful and lucrative professions in the information age, most advanced governments and societies have believed it important to ensure that women are encouraged to enter those fields and that they have access to the careers in them through proper education and certification.
Women in Engineering. Women have a major role to play in the engineering sector. This role can be emphasized upon by looking up recent news article clippings that have mentioned it. An analysis of the article quotes would further throw light onto the specific role of women in engineering with respect to the economic sector.
These range from psychological to socio-cultural and biological factors. However, the trend has beenchanging since the evolution of feminism, which saw many initiatives being developed to enlighten women and promote their interest in Mathematics. This paper will explore the role of American women in Mathematics during the 19th century.
Women in Mathematics, Science, and Engineering. Women employees with skills in science and technology are an essential resource today, in leading knowledge based economies, such as in the OECD countries. Due to the rapidly growing technology, there is an acute demand for science and technology employees, with the job growth being motivated and driven by an increased number of female employees in this sector.
Van Steensel et al. state that although many researchers have studied this issue, they have not specifically said which anxiety disorders ASD children and adolescents are most prone to experience. Because they found this gap in the literature, they decided to create a study that may answer the question of which anxiety disorders ASD children and adolescents experience most.
The trade relationship between China and the United States of America has gone through lots of ups and downs. This trade relationship began in the 17th century when both the countries agreed to trade with each other. However this relationship underwent some hard times when the communist party took over China.1 But it came back on the track in the 1970s when both agree to trade with each other again.
However, there were leading women scientists for over 3000 years ago, and some of them were excellent and prominent scientists (Rayner-Canham 7). In the recent decades, more than one thousand female scientists have
The film Double Indemnity is a Hollywood film directed by Billy Wilder. The script was created by Wilder and Raymond Chandler. As far as literary influence is concerned, the film is based on James M. Cain’s short novel with the same title. The novella had appeared in the form of an eight-episode serial in Liberty, a popular contemporary magazine.
(Arbuthnott, J., 2014, 4). The most obvious reason for this is natural predetermination and historical division of the roles of the opposite sexes: physical labour, breadwinning, and management and planning which demand certain mathematic
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