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Through a questionnaire that sought to ascertain the level of their motivation and anxiety towards English acquisition as a second language, I was able to set up the base for a formal research to examine the level of motivational and anxiety patterns as a result, of second language learning. More significantly, the subjects of the research were Saudi student who was studying English for their general academic purposes and latter use in their careers expressed dissatisfaction in their early education. More so, the students indicated that both social and psychological problems caused them difficulty when studying English as a second language in their earlier education at primary, intermediate and secondary schools for a period of seven years.
In most cases, motivation as a way of enhancing second language learning is important for an individual to acquire successfully language competence. Therefore, this section of the research gives an overview of literature that is considered relevant in establishing my research objectives. More than often, it is hard to describe the motivation because of it complex phenomenon in different facets of life. Shuib & Al-Tamimi (2009) put more emphasis on the fact that, proper motivation remains relevant among learners of a second language as a way of enhancing their language competence. More significantly, both the social and individual decisions in the degree of effort and emphasis people make, as they set their goals in second language depends on the source of motivation....
More than often, it is hard to describe the motivation because of it complex phenomenon in different facets of life. Shuib & Al-Tamimi (2009) put more emphasis on the fact that, proper motivation remains relevant among learners of a second language as a way of enhancing their language competence. More significantly, both the social and individual decisions in the degree of effort and emphasis people make, as they set their goals in second language depends on the source of motivation. On the other hand, Ghazi et al. (2010) described the motivation as the voluntary forces that give an individual the will to develop direction, arousal, and persistence of goal-directed towards achievement of success in second language acquisition. In addition, they believe that motivation acts as a driving force that compels, energizes and prompts an individual to develop interest in a second language learning within a particular time in which focus is set on attaining a specified goal. Rubenfeld et al. (2007) describe the motivation as self-determination, which drives an individual’s motives towards their goal pursuits as inspired by either intrinsic or extrinsic aspirations. More so, the goals that drive an individual’s motive is aimed at attaining both the basic and psychological needs that later on leads to external approval and rewards (Dekker & Fischer, 2008). As a result, students undertaking English learning, as their second language in their studies derive their motivation from extrinsic goals. Even so, learners of second language could be driven by intrinsic goals as they intend to enhance their sense of belonging within the community that uses a second
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Second Language Acquisition
The need and urge to communicate with others in the society is the most dominating factor that influences and accelerates the learning process of first language. According to Yiptong (1991), home and society provides full support to a learner in terms of an environment that is enriched with multiple opportunities to learn first language through language input data.
There is much debate centered on the appropriate time in a person’s life of when to begin learning a second language. Neuroscience perhaps is the best field to resolve this debate. Through the use of neuroimaging techniques, neuroscientists have the ability to identify the structures of the brain involved in primary and second language acquisition.
In the recent past, globalization trends have dissolved physical boundaries across the globe. Currently, there is free flow of information, goods as well as services from one region to another. This has increased interactions between and amongst communities.
Generally, motivation and attitude work together to ensure learners’ successful acquisition of a second language; hence, various motivational theories and models have been formulated to examine and explain this connection. However, there is a gap between theory and practice.
It is a social thing through which individuals offer their experiences to others and obtain their experience in return (Nakata, 2006). Motivation to learn a foreign language is described as the learner’s orientation with the purpose of learning a second language (Norris-Holt, 2001).
Enhancing Literature for students of English as second Language. Students of English as a second language require special attention when it comes to being given instructions as they may be at the same level of comprehending English as students who use English as their first language.
The challenge is the apparent difficulties that one may face in his attempt to learn his second language of choice. It is a proven fact that the ease of learning and grasping a language is a function of the relationship between one’s first language and the second language (Trimnell 2005, 76).
Universal Grammar in Second Language Acquisition
Universal Grammar includes invariant ideologies and parameters. Whereas theories such as Government- Binding (GB), Optimality Theory or Minimalism vary as in what way specifically they handle notions like parameters and principles, there is an accord that certain language properties are too non-concrete, subtle as well as intricate to be acquired without hypothesizing innate and explicitly linguistic restraints.
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Culture defines language, dictating phonological and semantic rules related to the specific language. Language also unites individuals who speak the same language providing them with a sense of belonging. Human beings grow when associated with a
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