According to David Archer (2006) “Literacy is about the acquisition and use of reading, writing, and numeracy skills, and thereby the development of active citizenship, improved health and livelihoods, and gender equality. …
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This situation exposes women to a high rate of illiteracy in which they face ignorance and serious gender disparities. Aware of these difficult living conditions of women, government officials and international organizations set up adult literacy programs that offer women a second chance to get educated. Because of these adult programs, many women succeed in acquiring literacy that makes it possible for them to get paid jobs, experience empowerment and even contribute to implementing vital government programs. Introduction Education has been a problem for women in developing countries for a long time. Many women do not have access to education in many African and Asian countries.
This lack of education is mainly due to cultural and traditional beliefs that motivate parents to keep their daughters at home to take care of domestic chores while boys are encouraged to attend school. This discrimination that starts at home grows and creates serious gender disparities in all aspects of the society. This phenomenon explains the low rates of literacy for women observed in many developing countries.The goals of literacy programmes should reflect this understanding.” Unfortunately, many women around the world do not fit in this definition because many of them do not know how to read and write and are still victim of gender disparities. ...
Archer (2006) confirms this theory when he states that literary has a “dramatic impact on women's self-esteem, empowering them to unlock economic, social, cultural, and political resources.” Low Rates of Literacy for Women Despite various efforts to raise the rates of literacy in many developing countries, the rates are still low, especially for women: “On average throughout the world, 88 women are literate for every 100 men, but only 62 or even as few as 57 women for every 100 men in many countries in Western Asia” (Hinzen, 2007). These low rates explain the gender disparities observed in different aspects. These gender disparities have hindered the efforts to raise the literacy level because men and women are not treated equally. Reflecting on gender issues in Kenya, John Muiru &Mukuria (2005) observe: “Gender bias is deeply rooted in the cultural and traditional values that prescribe roles based on gender and also discriminate against women as far as ownership of property is concerned.” In many patriarchal societies, women undergo real discrimination that puts them at disadvantage compared to men. Aware of the disparity, government officials have tried the reverse the situation: “The struggle to attain gender equity in literacy has led to putting too much emphasis on women as the target group of adult literacy programs” (Muiru & Mukuria, 2005). “Illiteracy is seen as an impediment to adults' successful functioning in daily life, to individual advancement, and to full participation in society. At its worst illiteracy is also associated with ignorance, inability and dependency, all perceived to be characteristic of uneducated or low
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