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High cost receivers produce accuracy of 1 centimetre under dense clouds and forests. Still GPS receiver produce problems of signal generation, satellite communication and certain multiple problems still require solution. There are many features, which may be used to increase accuracy, but some times, it is more time consuming for the users. Now there is a point of concern that, it would be appropriate for the users to work with less stringent settings to save time and money and similarly gaining better accuracy. All the GPS related problems and solution to those problems are discussed in ensuing paragraphs.
GPS works out position with the help of 24 satellites orbiting the earth. These satellites are operated by US department of Defence. These 24 satellites orbit earth twice a day and organized at six orbital planes that are inclined at 55 degree. Now there are clocks in receiver and satellite as well, used for calculating the distance and time that a signal takes to reach receiver. Different enhanced settings used by user help in increasing the time of a signal to reach receiver. Limited settings are the remedy to counter this problem for saving time in position calculation (Frank, 2011, 83)
GPS faces two types of interference in the open; these are faced in ionosphere and troposphere. In this type of error, signals take long time to reach receiver because they have to pass through the charged particles and in troposphere, signals have to pass through moisture that is time taking. Signals travel at the speed of light in upper space but they get slower the moment they pass through ionosphere and troposphere. Force of sun creates the positive charged particles at the height of 80 to 400 Kilometres. These ions form layers in the ionosphere, which disturbs the flow of electromagnetic waves generated by satellites (Kennedy, 2010).
Multiple errors occur when some amount of signals transmitted by satellite bounce back in the atmosphere before reaching a receiver.
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Through this paper, the authors attempted to assess the utility of geodetic surveys, which include conventional terrestrial surveys as well as satellite surveys using GPS (Global Positioning System), and geotechnical or structural surveys, like crack width measurements, for the monitoring of high and low-rise buildings.The authors’ main objective was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques.
However, GPS systems have also demonstrated significant potential benefits to the civil community through an increasingly large variety of applications” (1995. pdf file). This report will discuss the practice of using three types of survey equipment and will represent the accuracy between each type of equipment.
The surveys are consistently accurate to the sub centimetre level. When the GPS base is established on a known latitude and longitude, and if post processing is applied to the base station, standardized coordinates for GIS mapping is provided, or any other application that requires coordinates based on latitude and longitude, UTM zone, State Plane Zone, or any of the standard zones and map projections.
However, GPS had already a remarkable impact on surveying, first as a technology for the "control surveys", for which the purpose was first introduced into many countries during the early 1980's before the full satellite constellation was available to navigation users.
The purpose of which is it can operate in any kind of weather, it has a non-stop operation which means it can operate 24 hours and is always available anywhere. It has also a very economical use, it increases productivity, customer service is improved and the accuracy (3-D data, Velocity timing) is not a question.
In the column 1 of chart the design attribute are given, while column two gives key design features and sub-features that should be consider during design process. The 3rd column gives the expected likelihoods.
The industry as a whole is revolutionized due to the advancements in this technology.
Real Time Kinematic technique or RTK is a GPS mode that is broadly employed for accurate positioning applications. It was invented in 1990’s. It has several
This receiver is supposed to receive at least the signal from 3 or more GPS satellites. The satellites must be visible to the GPS receiver. What the term visible here implies is that there must be a direct line of signal from the
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