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Theoretical issues are fundamental to any research process because they constitute what researchers ‘silently think’ about research (Scott and Usher, 2011). Therefore, philosophical assumptions about ontology, epistemology and axiology are critical in undertaking a research process (Klenke, 2008). In the following sections, clarity on the philosophical approaches and research paradigm for this study will be provided.
Ontological approach addresses the philosophical question about the nature of reality and how it affects the methods of doing research. This approach focuses on ways of life and the relations behind social realities. According to Ritchie and Lewis (2003), ontology emphasizes on multiple and dynamic realities with no consideration of external realities. Qualitative researchers agree that ontology describes people views on the nature of reality both objectively and subjectively. Ontological assumptions affect our opinions and views on what is real and what is not. Such assumptions must be identified and considered so that the findings of particular phenomena can be objective and credible.
Epistemology consists of appropriate methods of finding out the nature of the world through knowledge acquisition. This approach emphasizes on knowledge acquisition and use to form basis and background for explanation of social realities. In epistemology, researchers opt to work with visibly evident social realities to come up with law- like conclusions akin to the ones created by natural and physical scientists (Cohen, et al., 2011). However, this approach has been termed more subjective especially when gathering information directly from participants through data collection methods such as interviews and observation (Beck 1979).
Creswell (1998) defines paradigms as world diverse views, while Denzin and Lincoln (1994) describe a paradigm as a set of basic beliefs that deal with
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For the sake of providing the best understanding, it will be appropriate to recap important elements of the research in order to make the research methodology meaningful. They following phases represent the objectives at hand: 3.1.1 Phase 1 To provide an understanding of the main objective of teaching and maintaining art in the curriculum of students in Iraq.
It includes the tools and techniques used to undertake a given enquiry into a topic under research (Scruggs and Mastropieri, 2006). The research methodology therefore sets the framework for the conduct of a study and defines how the study will be carried out from the initial phases to the conclusion.
Sildenafil was used at a concentration of 0.5µg/ml in order to compare well with the plasma concentrations in the male mice. The development process of the embryos was examined by assessing its rate and the cell number of the blastocysts after four days.
uantitative with hypothesis testing), interpretivism (qualitative with hypothesis generalizations) and realism are the different types of research philosophies, each has its own purposes and advantages.
According to Taylor et al., (1995) quantitative data is numerical in form.
Observation of facts, which are allowed to speak for themselves, takes precedence over logical or theoretical analysis. It avoids any distortion that might occur due to analysis. Hence, for this method, the subject
Alcoholism among teenagers has become very rampant. Many teenagers are continually engaging in alcohol intake and use in early stages of their lives. Long term dependence on alcohol leads to either moderate or
stand the symmetric and linear relationship between the employee satisfaction and the level of employee engagement (Boselie and Dietz, 2003; De Mello, Wildermuth and Pauken, 2008). The research sheds light upon the variable that are internal as well as external in raising
However, it does so with the aim of generating innovations and theory to solve educational research questions and issues. For this reason, it differs from other common research approaches like lab experiment research, action research,
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